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Introduction: The potency of plants are largely due to the presence of phytochemicals contained in it; which establishes its efficacy in the treatment of health conditions like diabetes mellitus.
Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the phytocomponents and hypoglycaemic effect of hydro-methanolic leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf in Streptozotocin induced - diabetic Wistar rats.
Methods: Thirty six (36) wistar rats with average weight of 230 g, were randomly assigned into five groups of 6 each animals each. Group 1: Served as Negative control (Non-diabetic) and received normal rat chow and water; Group 2: Served as positive control group and received 10 mg/kg bw of glibenclamide; groups 3, 4 and 5 served as test, and received 100 mg/kg bw, 150 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract respectively orally for 28 days. After one week of acclimatization, diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 60mg/kg bw.
Results: The phytochemical screening of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius revealed highly abundant levels of alkaloids and flavonoids, with moderate levels of tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, free anthraquinones, combined anthraquinones, terpenes, cardiac glycoside and cyanogenetic glycoside. 4.0% crude protein, 33% crude fibre, 7.0% crude fat, 3.0% ash and 6.1% muslin were revealed as the phytonutrients of the extract. The phytomineral screening of the extracts revealed 10 mg iron, 100 mg phosphorus, 0.01 mg sodium, 85mg magnesium, 20 mg potassium, 18 mg manganese, and 50 mg calcium. A dose dependent reduction in blood glucose level was observed after treatment when compared with glucose level before induction.
Discussion and Conclusion: This study revealed the ability of C. aconitifolius to lower blood glucose level; thereby suggesting that it could serve as a better therapy for diabetes mellitus and paving way for further investigation to identify the actual bioactive compounds responsible. This study provides novel information on the presence of muslin – an active phytonutrient, used in the arrest of bleeding in aneurysms. This might lead to the development of new excellent alternative natural remedy in cardiovascular studies.