Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Four Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants Namely: Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina

Main Article Content

Bob I. A. Mgbeje
Ezekiel Udo Umoh
Christine Emmanuel-Ikpeme

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the phytochemical composition of the leaves of four selected tropical medicinal plants namely: Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina.


Methodology: The phytochemicals in the plant leaves were extracted by cold maceration in ethanol and subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the phytochemicals.


Results: The qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds alkaloids, Saponins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids, polyphenols, specific cardiac glycosides, tannins, phytates and reducing compound in the leaves of each plant at varying quantities. Resins were only detected in O. gratissimum. From the quantitative analysis, Gongronema latifolium had the highest percentage content of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins and reducing sugars. Ocimum gratissimum had the highest flavonoid content.


Conclusion: Taken together, G. latifolium on balance had a higher phytochemical content than the other three plants and thus should be more versatile in the treatment of a whole range of diseases. This was followed by V. amygdalina, O. gratissimum and P. guineense in that order. The fact that most of these phytochemicals have antioxidant activity may be responsible for their antidiabetic activities and use in treatment of other free radical prone diseases.

Keywords:
Phytochemical composition, tropical medicinal plants, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mgbeje, B., Umoh, E., & Emmanuel-Ikpeme, C. (2019). Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Four Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants Namely: Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, Gongronema latifolium and Vernonia amygdalina. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 7(3), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i330102
Section
Original Research Article

References

Farnsworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD, Guo Z. World Health Organ. 1985;63:965.

Bandaranayake WM. Quality control, screening, toxicity and regulation of herbal drugs. In: Ahmad I, Aqil F, Owais M, editors. Modern phytomedicine. Turning Medicinal Plants into Drugs. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. 2006;25-57.

Odugbemi TA. A textbook of medicinal plants from Nigeria. Lagos: University of Lagos Press; 2008.

Sofowora AB. Medical plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Ibadan Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd: Ibadan. 1993;289.

Nagata KN, Taitro TH, Estsuji HB, Noboyasu EC, Shumuchi MA, Chikao NU. Medicinal plants in Nigeria. Agric Biological Chemistry. 1985;49:1181-1186.

Feroz MH, Ahmad RS, Sindhu STK, Shahbaz AM. Androgenic effect of herbs. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993;56: 55-57.

De Smet, PAGM. Herbal remedies. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002;347:2046-56.

Calixto JB. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents). Braz J Med Biol Res. 2000;33:179-189.

Stein R. Alternative remedies gaining popularity. The Washington Post. 2004;28.

Zhang J, Wider B, Shang H, Li X, Ernst E. Quality of herbal medicines: Challenges and solutions. Complement Ther Med. 2012;20(1-2):100-6.

Akinmoladun AC, Ibukun EO, Afor ED, Obuotor, EM, Farombi EO. Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum. Science Research Essay. 2007;2(5): 163-166.

Lachowicz KJ, Jones GP, Briggs DR, Bienuenu FE, Palmer MV, Tings SST, Hunter MO. Characteristics of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basillicum) grown in Australia. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1996;144:877-881.

Machale KW, Niranjan KU, Pangarkar VG. Recovery of dissolved essential oils form condensate waters of basil and Menthe arvensis distillation. J. Chem. Tech. Biotech. 1997;69:362-366.

Okwute SK. Plants derived pesticidal and antimicrobial agents for use in agriculture. A review of phytochemical and biological studies on some Nigeria plants. J of Agric. Science and Technology. 1992;2(1): 62-70.

Rehm SS, Espig GT. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics cultivation, economic value, utilization. Germany: Verlay Josef Margraf. 1991;552.
[ISBN 3-8236-1169-0]

Ugochuwku NH, Babady NF, Cobourne MN, Gasset SR. The effect of Gongronema latifolim extracts on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of diabetic rats. J Biosci. 2003;28(1):1-5.

Okafor JC. Conservation and use of traditional vegetable from woody forest species in south eastern Nigeria. Fame Agriculture Centre, Enugu, Nigeria. 2005;55-59.
Available:http://www.biodiversityinternational.org

Igile GO, Fafunsho M, Fasanmade A, Burda S, Jurzysta M, Oleszek W. Toxicity of Vernonia amygdalina leaves, extracts and purified saponins in mice. Proc. Eurp. Food Tox. 1994;2:394-399.

Iwu MM. Handbook of African medicinal plants. 1st ed. Florida: CRC Press. 1993;221-22.

Mgbeje BIA, Ugoanyanwu, FO, Ebong PE. Ameliorative impact of phytochemical fractions of Vernonia amygdalina leave extracts on male sex hormone levels and testicular integrity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino Wistar rats. World J Pharm. Pharmaceutical Sci. 2016; 5(5):120-132.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical method. 3rd ed. London: Thompson Science Journal; 1998;107-150.

Trease GE, Evans, WC. Pharmacognosy.13th Ed. London: Bailliere Tindall Books Publishers. Ltd. 1989;1-805.

Birk Y, Bondi A, Gestetner B, Ishaya IA. Thermostable hemolytic factor in Soybeans. Nature. 1963;197:1089-1090. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1971089a0

Hudson BJF, EI-Difrawi EA. The sapogenins of the seeds of four lupin species. J. Plant Food. 1979;3:181-186.

Harbone JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. London: Chapman and Hill; 1973.

Pearson D. Chemical analysis of food. 7th ed. Edinburgh, New York: Churchill Livingstone. 1976;7-9.

Narendhirakannam RT, Subramanian SM, Kandaswamy MV. Mineral content of some medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetic mellitus. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005;103:109-115.

Hernandez NE, Tereschuk ML, Abdala LR. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafi del valle (Tucman, Argentina). J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;73(1-2):317-322.

Morebise OF, Fafunso MA, Makinde JM, Olajide OA, Awe EO. Anti-inflammatory property of the leaves of Gongronema latifolium. Phytotherapy Research. 2002; 16:75-77.

Mensah JK, Okoli RI, Ohaju-Obodo JO, Eifediyi KB. Phytochemical, nutritional and medicinal properties of some leafy vegetable consumed by Ede people of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(14):2304-2309.
Available:http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB

Ayitey-Smith EF, Addae-Mensah IW. A preliminary pharmacological study of Wisanine, a piperine type alkaloid from the roots of Piper guineense. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research. 1977;4(1):79P-80P.

Gill LS. Ethnobotanical uses of plants in Nigeria. Benin City: University of Benin Press. 1992;181.

Banso AU, Adeyemo SO. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of tannins isolated from Dichrostachys cinerea, African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(15): 1785-1787.
Available:http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB

Kubmarawa DM, Ajoku GA, Enwerem NM, Okorie DA. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of 50 medicinal plants from Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(14):S1690-1696.

Rhoades DF. Evolution of plant chemical defence against herbivores. In: Rosenthal GA, Janzen DH, editors. Herbivores: Their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. New York: Academic Press. 1979;41.

Kittakoop P, Mahidol C, Ruchirawat S. Alkaloids as important scaffolds in therapeutic drugs for the treatments of cancer, tuberculosis and smoking cessation. Curr Top Med Chem. 2014;14 (2):239–252.

Russo P, Frustaci A, Del Bufalo A, Fini M, Cesario A. Multitarget drugs of plants origin acting on Alzheimer's disease. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20(13):1686–93.

Sinatra RS, Jahr JS, Watkins-Pitchford JM. The Essence of Analgesia and Analgesics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010;82–90.

Cushnie TP, Cushnie B, Lamb AJ. Alkaloids: An overview of their antibacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and antivirulence activities. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014;44(5):377–386.

Qiu S, Sun H, Zhang AH, Xu HY, Yan GL, Han Y, Wang XJ. Natural alkaloids: Basic aspects, biological roles and future perspectives. Chin J Nat Med. 2014;12(6): 401–406.

Aniszewski T. Alkaloids – secrets of life. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2007.

Hesse M. Alkaloids: Nature's Curse or Blessing? Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. 2002; 303–309.

Robbers JE, Speedie MK, Tyler VE. Chapter 9: Alkaloids. Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. 1996;143–185.

Brito-Arias M. Synthesis and characterization of glycosides. Switzerland: Springer; 2007.

Morsy N. Cardiac glycosides in medicinal plants. In: Hany El-Shemy ed. Aromatic and medicinal plants - Back to nature. Intech Open Science; 2017.
Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.5572/65963

Farnsworth NF. Biological and phytochemical screening of plants. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1966;55:225–276.

Doskotch RW, Malik MY, Hufford CD, Malik SN. Trent JE, Kubelka W. Antitumor agents. V: Cytotoxic cardenolides from Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1972; 61:570–573.

Kamano Y, Satoth N, Nakayoshi H, Pettit GR, Smith CR. Rhinovirus inhibition by bufadienolides. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1988;36:326–332.

Dharmananda SP. Platycodon and other Chinese herbs with triterpene glycosides. Institute for Traditional Medicine (ITM), Portland, Oregon. 2000;1-6.
Available:www.itmonline.org
(Accessed 29/4/2019)

Agbata ENC, Onyemelukwe NF, Imo NM. Antimicrobial activities and cellular toxicity of ethanol and methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum from Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences. 2007;6(2):33-38.

Eleyinimi AF. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Gongronema latifolium. Journal of Zhenjiang University of Sciences. 2007;8(5):352-358.

Matasyoh LG, Matasyoh JC, Wachira FN, Kinyua MG, Muigai AW, Mukiama TK. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum growing in Eastern Kenya. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007; 6(6):760-765.

Savage GP. Saponins. In: Caballero B, Finglas P, Toldra F, editors. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2nd ed. Elsevier. 2003;5095-5098

Sun HX, Xie Y, Ye YP. Vaccine. 2009; 27(12):1787–1796.

Patra AK, Saxena J. The effect and mode of action of saponins on the microbial populations and fermentation in the rumen and ruminant production. Nutrition Research Reviews. 2009;22(2):204–209.

Effiong GS, Mgbeje BIA, Igile GO, Atangwho JI, Eyong EU and Ebong PE. Antioxidant enzymes activity and Hormonal changes following administration of ethanolic leaves extracts of Nauclea latifolia and Gongronema latifolium in streptotozocin induced-diabetic rats. Eur. J. Med. Plants. 2013;3(2):297-309.

Ebong PE, Effiong EE, Mgbeje BIA, Igile GO, Itam EH. Combined therapy of Moringa oleifera and Ocimum gratissimum reversed testicular damage in diabetic rats. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research. 2014;4(11):2277-2290.

Ugoanyanwu FO, Mgbeje BIA, Igile GO and Ebong PE. The flavonoid-rich fraction of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract reversed diabetes-induced hyperglycemia and pancreatic beta cell damage in albino Wistar rats. World Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015;4(10): 1788-1802.

Wodu CO, Iwuji SC, Adienbo OM. Hyperglycaemic activity of Piper guineense in diabetic female albino Wistar Rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research. 2017;7(2):1-4.

Chung KT, Wong TY, Wei CI, Huang YW, Lin Y. Tannins and human health: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1998; 38(6):421-64.

Ajali U. Chemistry of bio-compounds. Enugu, Nigeria: Rhyce kerex publishers; 2004;144.

Cannas AF. Tannins: Fascinating but sometimes dangerous molecules. 2005;9.
Available:http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu

Tyler VE, Brandy LR, Robbers JE. Pharmacognosy. 7th Edition. Philadelphia: Lea & Ferbiger. 1981;77-79.

Kong YC, Ng KH, But PP, Li QL, Yu SX, Zhang HT, Cheng KF, Soejarto DD, Kan WS & Waterman PG. Sources of the anti-implantation alkaloid yuehchukene in the genus Murraya. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986; 15(2):195-200.

Baynes RD, Bothwell TH. Tannins as metal ion Chelators. Annual Reviews in Nutrition. 1990;10:133-138.

Cazarolli LH, Zanatta L, Alberton EH, Figueiredo MS, Folador P, Damazio RG, Pizzolatti MG, Silva FR. Flavonoids: Prospective drug candidates. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 2008;8 (13):1429–1440.

Tapas AR, Sakarkar DM, Kakde RB. Flavonoids as nutraceuticals: A review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7(3):1089-1099.

Nahak G, Suar M, Sahu RK. Antioxidant potential and nutritional values of vegetables: A review. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 2014;8(2):50-81.

Yamamoto Y, Gaynor RB. Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2001;107(2):135–42.

Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2005;26(5):343–356.

Cushnie TP, Lamb AJ. Recent advances in understanding the antibacterial properties of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2011;38(2):99– 107.

Friedman M. Overview of antibacterial, antitoxin, antiviral and antifungal activities of tea flavonoids and teas. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2007;51(1): 116–134.

Manner S, Skogman M, Goeres D, Vuorela P, Fallarero A. Systematic exploration of natural and synthetic flavonoids for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013;14(10):19434–19451.

Schuier M, Sies H, Illek B, Fischer H. Cocoa-related flavonoids inhibit CFTR-mediated chloride transport across T84 human colon epithelia. J. Nutr. 2005; 135(10):2320–5.

Bandele OJ, Clawson SJ, Osheroff N. Dietary polyphenols as topoisomerase II poisons: B-ring substituents determine the mechanism of enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage enhancement. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 2008;21(6):1253–1260.

Esselen M, Fritz J, Hutter M, Marko D. Delphinidin modulates the DNA-damaging properties of topoisomerase II poisons. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 2009; 22(3):554–64.

Barjesteh van, Waalwijk van, Doorn-Khosrovani S, Janssen J, Maas LM, Godschalk RW, Nijhuis JG, van Schooten FJ. Dietary flavonoids induce MLL translocations in primary human CD34+ cells. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28(8):1703–9.

Ravishankar D, Rajora AK, Greco F, Osborn HM. Flavonoids as prospective compounds for anti-cancer therapy. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 2013;4512:2821–2831.

Manach C, Mazur A, Scalbert A. Polyphenols and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Current Opinion in Lipidology. 2005;16(1):77–84.

Babu PV, Liu D, Gilbert ER. Recent advances in understanding the anti-diabetic actions of dietary flavonoids. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2013; 24(11):1777–1789.

Ferretti G, Bacchetti T, Masciangelo S, Saturni L. Celiac disease, inflammation and oxidative damage: A nutrigenetic approach. Nutrients. 2012;4(12):243– 257.

Izzi V, Masuelli L, Tresoldi I, Sacchetti P, Modesti A, Galvano F, Bei R. The effects of dietary flavonoids on the regulation of redox inflammatory networks. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2012;17(7):2396–2418.

Gomes A, Couto D, Alves A, Dias I, Freitas M, Porto G, Duarte JA, Fernandes E. Trihydroxyflavones with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. Biofactors. 2012;38(5):378–386.

Chang CF, Cho S, Wang J. (-)-Epicatechin protects hemorrhagic brain via synergistic Nrf2 pathways. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014;1(4):258–271.