Main Article Content
The study is aimed at determining the atheroprotective property of ginger (Zingiber officinale) aqueous extract to rats fed with a high-fat diet. Each group consisted of 5 rats. Group 1 represent the control group and received normal rat pellets; groups 2-5 were maintained on high-fat diet for 6 weeks to establish hyperlipidemia. Groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 received distilled water, distilled water, 400, 500 and 600 mg/kg (body weight) Zingiber officinale respectively for 4 weeks. Serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined using standard biochemical methods. Histologic examination of tissues was by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining technique. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and P<0.05 was considered significant. A decrease in the mean concentrations of TG, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and increase in HDL-C concentration of each of the treatment groups (3, 4, 5) were observed when compared with that of group 2. In rats fed high-fat diet, histologic abnormalities were observed for the heart, liver, and kidney which were not adequately corrected by ginger treatment. Results suggest that at dosage levels studied, aqueous ginger extract ameliorated biochemical but not histologic consequences of the high-fat diet.
Kakimoto PA, Kowaltowski AJ. Effects of high fat diets on rodent liver bioenergetics and oxidative imbalance. Redox Biology. 2016;8:216-225.
Velazquez KT, Bader JE, Sougiannis AT, Carson MS, Chatzistamou I, Carson JA, Nagarkatti M, Murphy EA. Prolonged high- fat-diet feeding promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver and alters gut microbiota in mice. World Journal of Hepatology. 2019;11(8): 619-637.
Omran MOA., Al-Mayahb JY, Al-Mousawib NR. Al-Aoboodib AGH. Effects of garlic on haemostatic parameters and lipid profile in hyperlipidemia rats: antiatherogenic and antithrombotic effects. Eastern Journal of Medicines. 2006;11:13-18.
Sanjay KB, Maulik S. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders. Nutrition Journal. 2002;1: 4-30.
Akhani, SP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK. Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2004;56(1):101–115.
Nammi S, Sreemantula B, Roufogalis D. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome on the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2009; 104(5):366–373.
Zodda D, Giammona R, Schifillti S. Treatment strategy for dyslipidemia in cardiovascular disease prevention: Focus on old and new drugs. Pharmacy: Journal of Pharmacy Education and Practice. 2018;6(1):10.
Abu-Rabia A. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East. Journal of Ethnobiological and Ethnomedicine. 2005; 1:4-4.
Setzer MC, Werka JS, Irvine AK, Jackes BR, Setzer WN. Biological activity of rainforest plant extracts from far north Queensland, Australia. In: Williams LAD ed. Biologically Active Natural Products for the 21st Century. Research Signpost, Trivandrum 695 023, Kerala, India. 2006; 21–46.
Grifo F, Rosenthal J. Biodiversity and human health. Island Press, Washington DC, USA; 1997.
WHO/AFRO, author. African Traditional medicine’ brazzaville: Technical report series. Report of the regional expert committee. 1976;1:3-4.
Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013; 10(5):210-219.
Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CSG, Richmond W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974; 20:470-5.
Bucollo G, David M. Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by use of enzyme. Clin Chem. 1973;19:476-482.
Altunkaynak ME, Ozbek E, Altunkaynak BZ, Can I, Unal D, Unal B. J Anat. 2008;212(6):845-852.
Hassan NF, Soliman GM, Okasha EF, Shalaby AM. Histological, immune histo chemical and biochemical study of experimentally induced fatty liver in adult male albino rat and the possible protective role of pomegranate. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure. 2018;6(1): 44-55.
Kim S, Lee M, Jung S, Sun H, Park S, Kang B, Kim S, Kim I, Kim C, Kim Y. Ginger extract ameliorates obesity and inflammation via regulating microRNA-21/132 expression and AMPK activation in white adipose tissue. Nutrients. 2018;10 (11):1567.
Kim H Kim B, Mun E, Jeong S, Cha Y. The antioxidant activity of steamed ginger and its protective effects on obesity induced by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2018;12(6):5013-511.