Main Article Content
Aim: This study was designed to assess the utilization of plants with anti-diabetic properties and to conduct preliminary phytochemical analysis and moreover, to assess the anti-diabetic potential of selected plants used to treat and manage Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the residents of Pakuri (St. Cuthbert’s Mission) in Guyana.
Methodology: The leaves of sour sop (Annona muricata L.), pear (Persea americana Mill.) and Mocou-Mocou (Montrichardia arborescens L. Schott) underwent phytochemical testing and a-amylase Inhibition testing to determine their anti-diabetic properties.
Results: This study showed that the leaves of pear, sour sop and mocou mocou contained different chemical constituents including alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins but the absence of amino acids (proteins), carbohydrates and glycosides. The a-amylase inhibitory studies performed demonstrated that the extracts of A. muricata in ethanol and chloroform had significant inhibitory potential.
Conclusion: Considering the promising potential of phytochemicals and the anti-diabetic activity of these species of plant extracts in anti-diabetic drug development, in vivo experiments and clinical trials are required for efficacy and safety evaluation. Also, the anti-diabetic phytochemicals may be used in combination with existing orthodox drugs, thereby, reducing the dose of synthetic anti-diabetic drugs, which will help in addressing the toxicity and cost-related issues in chronic use during the management of diabetes mellitus (DM).
Wink M. Evolutionary advantage and molecular modes of action of multi- component mixtures used in phytomedicine. Current Drug Metabolism. 2009;9(10):996-1009.
Wilson E. Screening plants for new medicines. In N. Farnsworth, Biodiversity. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. 1988;61-73.
Graham-Brown R. Toxicity of Chinese herbal remedies. Lancet. 1992;340(8820): 673-674.
Grover J, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;81 (1):81-100.
Brothwell DR. The Amerindians of Guyana: A biological review. The Eugenics Review. 1967;59(1):22-45.
Corrie D; 2019.
Boston C, Rosales J, Singh J, Kurup R. Knowledge and utilization of traditonal medicine for type 2 diabetes mellitus among residents of pakuri (St. Cuthbert's Mission) in Guyana. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2019;7(3):1-12.
Sofowora A. Screening plants for bioactive agents. In: Medicinal plants and traditional medicinal in Africa. 2nd Ed. Spectrum Books Ltd, Sunshine House, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1993;134-156.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 15th Ed. Saunders Publishers, London. 2002;42-44:221-229,246-249,304-06,331-332,391-393.
Yasuma A, Ichikawa T. Ninhydrin-Schiff and alloxan-Schiff staining. A new histochemical staining method for proteins. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 1953;41:296-299.
Evans WC. Trease and Evans pharmacognosy, Harcourt Brace and company. Asia pvt. Ltd. Singapore; 1997.
Kirtikar K, Basu B. Indian Medicinal Plants, In: Annonaceae (2 ed. 1). (E. Blatter, J. Caius, Eds.) Allahabad: Lalit Mohan Basu. 1975;1.
Hansawasdi C, Kawabata J, Kasai T. Alpha-amylase inhibitors from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) tea. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000;64(5):1041-1043.
Rajnarayana K, Reddy M, Chaluvadi M, Krishna D. Biflavanoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian Journal pf Pharmacology. 2001;33:2-16.
Rao M, Rao Y, Rao A, Prabhkar M, Rao C, Muralidhar N. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavanoid isolated from Caralluma attenuate. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1998; 62:63-66.
Suba V, Murugesan T, Rao R, Ghosh L, Pal M, Mandal S, et al. Antidiabetic potential of Barleria lupulina extract in rats. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:1-4.
Smith A, Adanlawo I. Hypoglycaemic effect of saponin from the root of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. JDDT. 2012;2(6):9-12.
Abdel-Hassan I, Abdel-Barry J, Mohammedaa S. The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effect of Citrullus colocynthis fruit aqueous extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000;71(1–2): 325-330.
Abdel-Zaher A, Salim S, Assaf M. Antidiabetic activity and toxicity of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves. J. Enthnopharmacol. 2005;101(1-3):129-138.
Aniszewski T. Alkaloids: chemistry, biology, ecology and applications (2 ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2015.
Singh S, Pandey S, Srivastava S. Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi). Indian J. Pharmacol. 2003;35:83-91.
Chattopadhyay R. A comparative evaluation of some blood sugar lowering agents of plant origin. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67:367-372.
Jarald E, Sheeja E, Motwani S. Comparative evaluation of antihyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic activity of various parts of Catharanthus roseus Linn. Res J Med Plant. 2008;2: 10-15.
Wanders R, van Grunsven E, Jansen G. Lipid metabolism in peroxisomes: Enzymology, fucntions and dysfucntion of the fatty acid alpha and beta oxidative system in humans. Biochem Soc Trans. 2000;28:141-148.
Quattrocchi U. CRC World Dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: Common names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms and Etymology. 5. CRC Press; 2012.