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Aims: To determine qualitatively the amount of alkaloids, saponin, tannin, volatile oil, phenol and flavonoids in the different anatomical parts of ripe Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruits.
Methodology: Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruits were purchased from Sabo market, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. The fruits were separated with a razor into four (4) anatomical parts (the epicarp, mesocarp, endocarp, and seed) after washing with distilled water. 1gram of each anatomical parts of the fruit were soaked in 20mls of distilled water,1% volume per volume (v/v), 2% v/v, 3%v/v, 4%v/v and 5%v/v of ethanol, ethylacetate and methanol separately. The mixtures were left for 24 hours after which they were sieved to obtain the extracts. The presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, volatile oil, phenol and flavonoid were determined qualitatively in the extracts at selected concentrations.
Results: The results obtained showed that alkaloids are more concentrated in the mesocarp of Solanum aethiopicum Linn; volatile (essential) oil is more pronounced in the mesocarp and endocarp of Solanum aethiopicum Linn; saponin is confirmed in all anatomical parts of the fruit at reasonable quality except in the seed; tannin is found to be moderately present only in the aqueous extract of mesocarp of Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruit while the presence of phenol and flavonoids were confirmed in trace amount at few tested concentrations of the extracts.
Conclusion: Taken together, the presence of a variety of phytochemicals in the different anatomical parts of Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruit indicate that the fruit might be pharmacologically active against a number of diseases. However, this should be subjected to subsequent researches.
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