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Aim: To evaluate antioxidants supplementation (selenium and vitamin E) on renal, hepatic and cardiac function markers in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in Wister rats.
Study Design: Rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups with each group consisting of 5 rats. The treatment pattern involved the induction of hyperglycaemia in the rats followed by oral administration of selenium and vitamin E supplements singularly and in combination. The groups are as follow:
Group A: Alloxan induced diabetic Rats treated with selenium (0.02 mg/kg) for 35 days.
Group B: Alloxan induced diabetic Rats treated with Vitamin E (70.0 mg/kg) for 35 days.
Group C: Alloxan induced diabetic Ratstreated with both Selenium and Vitamin E (0.02 mg/kg + 70.0 mg/kg) for a period of 35 days.
Group D: Alloxan induced diabetic Rats without any treatment (Positive control) for 35 days.
Group E: Rats in this group were fed normally for 35 days without induction and treatment (Negative control).
Place and Duration of the Study Area: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria over a period of 9 months (January, 2019 – September, 2019).
Methodology: After the inducement of hyperglycaemia in the rats (Group A – D) with a single dose intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 140mg/kg body weight of alloxan hydrate, treatment with the antioxidants (selenium and Vitamin E) was performed for 35 days. At the end of 35 days, the animals were allowed to fast for 18 hours and sacrificed. Plasma specimen collected was used for the assay of Na+, K+, HCO3, urea, creatinine, cardiac troponin I, LDH, AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, protein, albumin globulin and MDA while renal, hepatic and cardiac tissues collected were used for histological investigations.
Results: Significantly lower values were seen in Na+, K+, HCO3 and conjugated bilirubin in the diabetic rats without antioxidants supplementation (group D) when compared to diabetic rats with antioxidants supplementation of selenium and vitamin E (group A, B & C) and non-diabetic control group (group E). There were no significant differences seen when Group A, B, C and E were compared among one another. Also, significantly higher values were seen in AST, ALT, ALP, Unconjugated bilirubin, urea, creatinine, cardiac troponin I and MDA in the diabetic rats without antioxidants supplementation (group D) when compared with diabetic rats treated with antioxidants supplements of selenium and vitamin E (group A, B & C) and non-diabetic control group (group E). However, no significant differences were seen in LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin and total bilirubin at P=.05. Histological findings in the kidneys, liver and cardiac tissues of the rats treated with antioxidants supplement showed recovery tendencies compared to diabetic rats without antioxidant supplementation.
Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that the use of selenium or vitamin E singularly or in combination has ameliorative effect on cardiac, renal and hepatic function markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. However, the combination of selenium and vitamin E had no synergistic advantage over the use of selenium or vitamin E alone.
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