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Euphorbia heterophylla has been reported to possess enormous medicinal benefits hence there is a need for holistic research on its toxicological effects. Four different solvents (cold and hot water, chloroform and 80% methanol) were used to extract the aerial parts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. Experimental albino rats were obtained from Federal University of Technology Akure’s Microbiology Department Animal House. Toxicological analysis of Euphorbia heterophylla extracts was carried out on the experimental albino rats. The animals were grouped into thirteen with three rats in a group different concentrations of the extracts were administered orally to different groups of the rats for a period of two weeks (14 days). Sterile distilled water was administered to the negative control group. During the 14 days of extracts administration, the animals were observed for clinical manifestations like salivation, nervousness, imitability, itching of the nose and diarrhoea. After the expiration of the two weeks, the animals were sacrificed and vital organs like heart, liver, kidney and intestine were harvested and examined for any degenerative changes and lesions. Blood samples were collected before and after the administration of the extracts to check for blood parameters (Packed Cell Volume (PCV), white blood cell count (total and differential), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and haemoglobin (Hb) estimation. The toxicological results of the extracts showed various degrees of abnormalities detected in the histopathological sections of the intestine, kidney and the heart. It was found that all the extracts at different concentrations burnt the intestinal walls of all the animals tested. There were significant reductions in the total white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophil counts while there was a significant increase in the lymphocytes count after the administration of the extracts. The findings of this study revealed that Euphorbia heterophylla had toxicological effects on the albino rats organs but increases there lymphocytes count, boosting their immune system, however advance researches to eliminate the toxic phytochemicals from the extract is recommended.
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