Main Article Content
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of knowledge regarding self-care and awareness as well as long-term complications among type 2 diabetic patients in Guyana.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation and West Demerara Regional Hospital Guyana during the period September 2020 and December 2020.
Results: A total of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who met the inclusion criteria were recruited via advertisement and telephone interviews. The data revealed about 66.5% of participants were deemed to have good knowledge with men accounting for the majority. Diabetic foot and hypertension were commonly seen among participants with complications. Significant association was noted with barrier level of patients with the level of education (p=0.001), ethnicity (0.006) and insurance plan (0.03). Adherence to self-care showed statistically significant association with patient’s level of education (p<0.0001), marital status (0.02), employment status (p<0.0001), insurance plan (0.01) and persons living with multiple persons in the household (p<0.0001). Statistically, significant association was also noted among patient’s self-health feeling with level of education (0.004), employment status (p<0.0001), insurance plan (0.01) and persons living with multiple persons in the household (p<0.0001). There was no statistical difference between the hospital clinics neither between the groups of participants.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the study highlighted gaps in the knowledge of the disease and patient care. Therefore, efforts should be made to enhance patient care by scheduling regular educational sessions and having services such as counselling available to patients.
Oliveira JEP, Vencio S. Diretrizes da Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes, 2015-2016. São Paulo: A.C. Farmacêutica; 2016.
Ibrahim WN. Comparison of type II diabetes mellitus outpatient care cost by level of care. BMC Public Health. 2014;14;P1.
International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussles, Belgium; 2019. Available:https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Brown S, Garcia A, Kouzekanani K, Hank C. Cultural Competence Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:259-268.
World Health Organization (WHO). Diabetes; 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011 World Health Organization: Available:http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/
American Diabetes Association (ADA). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(1):S8-S16.
Queiroz PC, Aguiar DC, Pinheiro RP, Moraes CC, Pimentel IRS, Ferraz CLH, et al. Prevalência das complicações micro e macrovasculares e de seus fatores de risco empacientes com diabetes mellitus e síndrome metabólica. Rev Soc Bras Clin Med. 2011;9(4):254-8.
Cenci DR, Silva MD, Gomes EB, Pinheiro HA. Análise do equilíbrio em pacientes diabéticos por meio do sistema F-Scan e da Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg. Fisioter Mov. 2013;26(1):55-61.
Oliveira AF, Valente JG, Leite IC, Schramm JMA, Azevedo AR, Gadelha AMJ. Global burden of disease attributable to diabetes mellitus in Brazil. Cad Saúde Pública. 2009;25(6):1234-44.
Santos JC, Moreira TMM. Fatores de risco e complicações em hipertensos/diabéticos de uma regional sanitária do nordeste brasileiro. Rev Esc Enferm. 2012;46(5): 1125-32.
World Health Organization (WHO). Diabetes Mellitus FACT SHEET. Geneva, Netherlands: World Health Organization Report; 2020. Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes
Raman R, Gella L, Srinivasan S, Sharma T. Diabetic retinopathy: An epidemic at home and around the world. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016;64:69-75.
Ferguson T, Tulloch-Reid M, Wilks R. The epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Jamaica and the Caribbean: A historical review. West Indian Med. J. 2010;59(3): 259-64.
15. Qibin Qi, James BM, Kathryn M, Rexrode FB, Lu HQ. Diabetes genetic predisposition score and cardiovascular complications among patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;DC_20852.
World Health Organization (WHO). Diabetes. Geneva, Netherlands: World Health Organization Fact Sheet. 2009; 312(1). Ministry of Health Guyana Statistical Report. 2006.
Vargas-Uricoechea H, Caceres-Acosta MF. Control of blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Open Med. 2018;13:304-323.
Samuels T, Bolen S, Yeh H, Abuid M, Marinopoulos S, Weiner J, et al. Missed opportunities in diabetes management: A longitudinal assessment of factors associated with sub-optimal quality. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(11):1770-77.
Shobhana R, Begum R, Snehalatha C, Vijay V, Ramachandran A. Patients’ adherence to diabetes treatment. J Assoc Physicians India. 1999;47(12):1173–75.
Niguse H, Belay G, Fisseha G, Desale T, Gebremedhn G. Self-care related knowledge, attitude, practice and associated factors among patients with diabetes in Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, North Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(34).
Aljerf L, AlMasri N. Syrian Case Study: Behçet’s disease clinical symptom-matologies, ocular manifestations, and treatment. Chronicles of Pharmaceutical Science. 2018;2(2):502-509.
Saleh F, Mumu SJ, Ara F, Begum HA, Ali L. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1112.
St. Paul A, Corbett C, Okune R, Autieri M. Angiotensin II, Hypercholesterolemia and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: A Perfect trio For Vascular Pathology. Int. J Mol. Sci. 2020;21(12):4525.
Nordstrom A, Hadrevi J, Olsson T, Franks PW, Nordstrom P, et al. Higher Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Men Than in Women Is Associated with Differences in Visceral Fat Mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 101(10):3740-46.
Unwin N, Gan D, Whiting D. The IDF diabetes atlas: providing evidence, raising awareness and promoting action. Diabetes Res Clinical Pract. 2010;87:2-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2009.11.006.
Mumu SJ, Saleh F, Ara F, Haque MR, Ali L. Awareness regarding risk factors of type 2 diabetes among individuals attending a tertiary-care hospital in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:599.
Baig AA, Benitez A, Quinn MT, Burnet DL. Family interventions to improve diabetes outcomes or adults. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015;1353:89-112.
Powers MA, Bardsley J, Cypress M, Duker P, Funnell M, Fischl AH et al. Diabetes self-management education and support in type 2 diabetes: a joint position statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Clin Diabetes. 2016;34(2): 70-80.
Wong CK, Wong WC, Wan YF, Chan AK, Chan FW, Lam CL. Effect of a structured diabetes education programme in primary care on hospitalizations and emergency department visits among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the Patient Empowerment Program. Diabet Med. 2016;33:1427-36.
Kumar IU, Murthy JP, Upadya U, Venkatesh M. Gender differences in awareness of diabetes mellitus among the rural population. Asian J Med Sci. 2017; 8(2):44-49.
Guo XH, Yuan L, Lou QQ, Shen L, Sun ZL, Zhao F et al. A nationwide survey of diabetes education, self-management and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in China. Chin Med J. 2012;125(23):4175-80.
Rodrigues FFL, Zanetti ML, Santos MA, Martins TA, Sousa VD, Teixeira CRS. Knowledge and attitude: Important components in diabetes education. Rev Latino- Am Enferm. 2009;17(4): 468-73.
Sacerdote C, Ricceri F, Rolandsson O, Baldi I, Chirlaque MD, Feskens EJM. Lower educational levels is a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in Euro- pean countries: The EPIC-Inter Act Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41(4):1162-73.
Green L, Brancati F, Albright A. Primary prevention strategies of type 2 diabetes: integrative public health and primary care opportunities, challenges and strategies. Fam Pract. 2012;29(Suppl. 1):13-23.
Rani PK, Raman R, Subramani S, Perumal G, Kumaramanickavel G, Sharma T. Knowledge of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy among rural populations in India, and the influence of knowledge of diabetic retinopathy on attitude and practice. Rural Remote Health. 2008;8(3): 838.
Assunção SC, Fonseca AP, Silveira MF, Caldeira AP, Pinho L. Knowledge and attitude of patients with diabetes mellitus in Primary Health Care. Esc Anna Nery. 2017;21: e20170208.
Moura NS, Lopes BB, Teixeira JJD, Oriá MOB, Vieira NFC, Guedes MVC. Literacy in health and self-care in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Rev Bras Enferm. 2019;72(3):700-706.
Agrawaal KK. Patients’ awareness about the complications of diabetes mellitus and its co-relation with the glycemic status. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2015;53:284-287.
Ullah F, Afridi AK, Rahim F, Ashfaq M, Khan S, Shabbier G, Rahman SU. Knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2015;27:360- 63.
Hoque MA, Islam MS, Khan MAM, Ahasan HN. Knowledge of diabetic complications in a diabetic population. J Med. 2009; 10(2):90–93.
Obirikorang Y, Obirikorang C, Anto EO, Acheampong E, Batu EN, Stella AD et al. Knowledge of complications of diabetes mellitus among patients visiting the diabetes clinic at Sampa Government Hospital, Ghana: A descriptive study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:637.
Ralineba T, Netshikweta ML, Shilubane NH. Knowledge and practices associated with diabetes among patients with chronic diabetes mellitus in rural areas of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. J Hum Ecol. 2015;51:193-201.
Menezes S, Mohammed BM. A study on awareness of diabetic complications among type 2 diabetes patients. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2015;14: 2279-61.
Adu MD, Malabu UH, Malau-Aduli AEO, Malau-Aduli BS. Enablers and barriers to effective diabetes self-management: A multi-national investigation. PLoS One. 2019;5:14(6):e0217771.