Main Article Content
Objective: The health hazards of tobacco smoking and diabetes mellitus constitute major and diverse global burden. The influence of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) powder and ethanolic extract on excised wound of diabetic rats was investigated.
Methods: The wounds of diabetic adult male wistar rats in groups of six were dressed with tobacco powder (TPD), tobacco ethanolic extract (TED), sofratulle (SD) and normal saline (ND) daily till healed. There were composite control groups namely TPC, TEC, SC and NC.
Every three days, the wound areas were measured in order to calculate the mean wound contraction rates. Granulation tissue was biopsied from an animal per group on day 3,6 and 9 for histopathological evaluation and after healing, the scars of the remaining animals were biopsied for histology.
Results: On day 3, the tobacco powder diabetic (TPD) group had the highest mean wound contraction rate and even higher than its control group. At day 18, the tobacco extract control group had the least mean wound contraction rate. The mean wound contraction rates of some diabetic groups were significantly higher than those of the respective control on day 3 and 12 (TPD vs TPC; TED vs TEC). The TPD mean wound contraction rates were significantly higher than those of ND on day 3,6,9 and 12. Histology of the granulation tissues of the tobacco diabetic groups was similar to those of the other groups. Sections of the wound scars revealed stratified squamous epithelia with abundant collagen fibres and blood vessels in all the groups. It was also observed that the scars were more fibrous than cellular with dermal appendages observed in some of the groups.
Conclusion: Topical application of Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco) promotes wound healing with scars comparable to those of rats dressed with sofratulle.
da Silva FR, Erdtmann B, Dalpiaz T, Nunes E, Ferraz A, Martins TLC et.al. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa. Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2013;36(2):269-275.
Vaghasia Y, Dave R, Chanda S, Vaghasiya Y, Dave R, Chanda S. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants from Western region of India. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant; 2011.
Yadav RNS, Agarwala M. Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. Journal of Phytology. 2011;3(12):10–14.
Herin Sheeba Gracelin D, John de Britto A, Benjamin Jeya Rathna Kumar P. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals in five Pteris species. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;5(Suppl. 1):105–107.
Rawat A, Mal RR. Phytochemical properties and pharmacological activities of Nicotiana tabacum. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research. 2013;1(2):74–82.
National Academies Press (US); 2011.
Ajani RS, Ogunbiyi IO. Carica papaya latex accelerates wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2015;9(3):1-12.
Lassig AAD, Bechtold JE, Lindgren BR, Pisanky A, Itabiyi A, et al. Tobacco exposure and wound healing in head and neck surgical wounds. Laryngoscope. 2018;128(3):618-625.
Sørensen LT, Toft B, Rygaard J, Ladelund S, Teisner B, Gottrup F. Smoking attenuates wound inflammation and proliferation while smoking cessation restores inflammation but not proliferation. Wound Repair Regen. 2010;18:186–192.
Michaud SE, Dussault S, Groleau J, Haddad P, Rivard A. Cigarette smoke exposure impairs VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration: Role of NO and reactive oxygen species. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;41:275–284.
Raitio A, Tuomas H, Kokkonen N, Salo T, Sorsa T, Hanemaaijer R, et al. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9, and -8 in the skin, serum, and saliva of smokers and non-smokers. Arch Dematol Res. 2005;297:242–248.
Sorensen LT, Toft B, Rygaard J, Paddon M, James T, Taylor R, et al. Effect of smoking, smoking cessation and nicotine patch on wound dimension, vitamin C, and systemic markers of collagen metabolism. Surgery. 2010;148:982–990.
Wong LS, Marins-Green M. Firsthand cigarette smoke alters fibroblast migration and survival: implications for impaired healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2004;12:471–484.
Knuutinen A, Kokkonen N, Risteli J, Vähäkangas K, Kallioinen M, Salo T, et al. Smoking affects collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix turnover in human skin. Br J Dermatol. 2002; 146:588–594.
Jodi C. McDaniel JC, Browning KK. Smoking, chronic wound healing and implications for evidence-based practice. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2014;41(5):415-430.
Moreyra AE, Lacy CR, Wilson AC, Kumar A, Kostis JB. Arterial blood nicotine concentration and coronary vasoconstrictive effect of low-nicotine cigarette smoking. Am Heart J. 1992;124(2):392–397.
Jensen JA, Goodson WH, Hopf HW, Hunt TK. Cigarette smoking decreases tissue oxygen. Arch Surg. 1991;126(9):1131–1134.
Morecraft R, Blair WF, Brown TD, Gable RH. Acute effects of smoking on digital artery blood flow in humans. J Hand Surg Am. 1994;19(1):1–7.
Sherwin MA, Gastwirth CM. Detrimental effects of cigarette smoking on lower extremity wound healing. J Foot Surg. 1990;29(1):84–87.
Arredondo J, Hall LL, Ndoye A, et al. Central role of fibroblast alpha3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mediating cutaneous effects of nicotine. Lab Invest. 2003;83(2):207–225.
Shen C, Sun L, Zhu N, Qi F. Kindlin-1 contributes to EGF-induced re-epithelialization in skin wound healing. Int J Mol Med. 2017;39:949–959.
Maity P. Smoking and the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcer—recent mechanistic update. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;253:329–338.
Trombitas V, Nagy A, Berce C, Tabaran F, Albu S. Effect of cigarette smoke on wound healing of the septal mucosa of the rat. BioMed Research International. 2016;Article ID 6958597:11.
Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA. 2005;293(2):217–228.
Kantor J, Margolis DJ. Treatment options for diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27(4):347–351.
Bartsch RH, Weiss G, Kastenbauer T, Patocka K, Deutinger M, Krapohl BD, et al. Crucial aspects of smoking in wound healing after breast reduction surgery. J Plast, Reconstr Aesth Surg. 2007;60(9):1045-1049.
Rogliani M, Gentile P, Silvi E, et al. Smokers: Risks and complications in abdominal dermolipectomy. Aesth Plast Surg. 2006;30(4):422-424.
Adams CI, Keating JF, Court-Brown JM. Cigarette smoking and open tibial fractures. Injury. 2001;32:61-65.
Morimoto N, Takemoto S, Kawazoe T, Suzuki S. Nicotine at a low concentration promotes wound healing. J Surg Res. 2008;145(2):199–204.
Heeschen C, Jang JJ, Pathak A, Kaji S, Hu BS, Tsao P, et al. Nicotine is an agent of angiogenesis: A pathophysiological link to cancer and atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2001;7:833-839.
Jacobi J, Jang JJ, Sundram U, Dayoub H, Fajardo LF, Cooke JP. Nicotine accelerates angiogenesis and wound healing in genetically diabetic mice. American Journal of Pathology. 2002;161(1):97-104.
Cucina A, Corvino V, Sapienza P, Borrelli V, Lucarelli M, Scarpa S, et al. Nicotine regulates basic fibroblastic growth factor and transforming growth factor 1 production in endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;257:306–312.
Carty CS, Soloway PD, Kayastha S, Bauer J, Marsan B, Ricotta JJ, et al. Nicotine and cotinine stimulate secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor and effect expression of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Surg. 1996;24:927-934.
Conklin BS, Zhao W, Zhong DS, Chen C. Nicotine and cotinine up-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor expression in endothelial cells. Am J Pathol. 2002;160: 413–418.
Tonnesen P, Norregaard J, Simonsen K, Sawe U. A double-blind trial of a 16-hour transdermal nicotine patch in smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:311-315.
Vieregge A, Sieberer M, Jacobs H, Hagenah JM, Vieregge P. Transdermal nicotine in PD: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology. 2001;57:1032–1035.
Scheid P, Bohadana A, Martinet Y. Nicotine patches for aphthous ulcers due to Behcet’s syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1816–1817.
Pullan RD, Rhodes J, Ganesh S, Mani V, Morris JS, Williams GT, et al. Transdermal nicotine for active ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:811–815.