Main Article Content
Aims: Senna alata (Carrion crow bush), Senna bicapsularis (Money bush) and Pityrogramma calomelanos (Wild maran) are known for their value in traditional medicine. The study was an effort to identify, environment friendly antifungal compounds from these locally available plants against fungal pathogen Curvularia lunata.
Study Design: An experiment based study done to identify antifungal property and phytochemical identification of C. lunata.
Place and Duration of Study: Plants were collected from the coastal areas of Guyana and identified at the Biodiversity Center, University of Guyana, Guyana between January 2017- May 2017.
Methodology: Phytochemical extraction was conducted using soxhlet and rotovap apparatus. Hexane, methanol and aqueous extracts of plants were analyzed for antifungal properties. Antifungal activity was tested using the poisoned food and well diffusion technique. Data analysis of the study was done using R-Studio Program for statistical computing and graphics. A Tukey test was done along with ANOVA and Boxplots.
Results: Methanol extract of P. calomelanos showed maximum antifungal activity with an inhibition percentage of 60.3% at 400 µl, with poison food technique. With well diffusion method, P. calomelanos showed an inhibition zone of 54 mm at 500 µl. Saponins, steroids and glycosides were identified with methanol extract of P. calomelanos.
Conclusion: The finding of this study indicates, the possible use of P. calomelanos extract as an antifungal agent against C. lunata and its potential to control fungal plant diseases.
Navi SS, Bandyopadhyay R, Hall AJ, Bramel-Cox PJ. A Pictorial Guide for the Identification of Mold Fungi on Sorghum Grain. Information Bulletin (59). International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India. ISBN. 1999;92-9066-416-9. Available:http://oar.icrisat.org/1948/1/A_Pictorial_Guide_for_the_Identification.pdf
Bengyella L, Yekwa EL, Nawaz K, et al. Global invasive Cochliobolus species: cohort of destroyers with implications in food losses and insecurity in the twenty-first century. Arch Microbiol. 2018;200(1):119-135.
Dua A, Joshi S, Satyanarayana T. Recombinant exochitinase of the thermophilic mould Myceliopthora thermophila BJA: Characteristics and utility in generating N-acetyl glucosamine and in biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi. Biotechnol Prog. 2016;33(1):70-80. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2370
Cook RJ. Making greater use of introduced microorganisms for biological control of plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 1993;31:53-80.
Baker KF. Evolving concepts of biological control of plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 1987;25(1): 67-85.
Heydari A, Pessarakli M. A review on biological control of fungal plant pathogens using microbial antagonists. J Biol Sci. 2010;10(4):273-290.
Martinez JA. Natural Fungicides Obtained from Plants; 2012.
Available:http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/26021/InTech Natural_fungicides_obtained_from_plants.pdf. DOI: 10.5772/26336
Ndolo DO, Njuguna E, Adetunji C, Harbor C, Rowe A, Breeyan A, Sangeetha J, Singh, G, Szewczyk B, Anjorin TS, Thangadur D, Hospet R. Research and development of biopesticides: Challenges and prospects. Outlooks Pest Manag. 2019;30(6):267-276. DOI:10.1564/v30_dec_08.
DeFilipps R, Maina S, Crepin J. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana); 2004.
Souza T, Morais-Braga M, Costa J, Saraiva A, Coutinho H. Enhancementof antimicrobial activity of antibiotics and antifungals by the use of natural products from Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) link. Arch Biol Sci. 2012;64(1):43-48.
Langeland K. Merry Christmas Senna; 2013.
Lindsay S, Middleton DJ, Middleton DJ, Suksathan P. A new species of Rhachidosorus (Rhachidosoraceae), a genus new to Thailand. Thai Forest Bull (Botany). 2012;40:102-104.
Ashidi JS, Houghton PJ, Hylands PJ, Efferth T. Ethnobotanical survey and cytotoxicity testing of plants of South-western Nigeria used to treat cancer, with isolation of cytotoxic constituents from Cajanus cajan Millsp. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;128(2):501-512.
Asuzu IU. Pharmacological evaluation of the folklore of Sphenostylis stenocarpa. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;6:263-267.
Siddiqui AA, Ali M. Practical Pharmaceutical chemistry, 1st edition. CBS publishers and distributors New Delhi. 1997;126-131.
Akhila A. Essential oil-bearing grasses: The genus Cymbopogon. New York: CRC Press; 2010. E ISBN 9780367446031
Singh VK, Khan AM. Medicinal plants of Mathura forest division (Social forestry division), Uttar Pradesh, in Medicinal Plants and Folklores (A strategy towards conquest of human ailments) edited by JN Govil. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. 1990;9:57–85.
Owoyale JA, Olatunji GA, Oguntoye S. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of an alcoholic extract of Senna alata leaves. J App Sci Environ Manag. 2005;9(3).
Mak YW, Chuah LO, Ahmad R, Bhat R. Antioxidant and antibacterialactivities of hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) and Cassia (Senna bicapsularis L.) flower extracts. J King Saud Univ Sci. 2013;25(4): 275-282.
Sule WF, Okonko IO, Joseph TA, Ojezele MO, Nwanze JC, Alli JA, Adewale OG, Ojezele OJ. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Senna alata Linn. Crude Leaf Extract. ResJ Biol Sci. 2010;5(3):275-284.
Ogunjobi AA, Abiala MA. Antimicrobial Activity of Senna alata and Phyllanthus amarus. Glob J Pharmacol. 2013;7(2):198-202.