Possible Effect of Aromatic Plants and Essential Oils against COVID-19: Review of Their Antiviral Activity
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research,
Aim: Till now, no specific treatment is available for COVID-19. This work is carried out with the aim of verifying in the literature the antiviral properties of aromatic plants and essential oils that can justify their use against the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2.
Methodology: The literature review was based mainly on the usual databases such as PubMed, PubMed Central., Science Direct, SCIELO, DOAJ, Science alert, Semantic scholar and Google scholar.
Results: A survey of literature reveals that aromatic plants and their essential oils are active against a large number of viruses (Herpes virus-1, Herpes virus-2, HIV, Adeno virus, Hepatite B Virus, Enterovirus 71, JUNV, etc.) and even against SARS-CoV-1 which has 96% of the same genetic background with SARS-CoV-2.
Conclusion: Aromatic plants and their essential oils exhibit high antiviral activities against several types of viruses. This evidence stemming from several experimental studies means that some compounds derived from essential oils could act as inhibitors of COVID-19.
Molecular docking investigations and pharmacoinformatics of some compounds derived from essential oils with SARS-CoV-2 protease are in progress to identify the potential inhibitors of the virus.
- aromatic plants
- essential oil
- antiviral activity.
How to Cite
Mpiana PT, Ngbolua KN, Tshibangu DST, Kilembe JT, Gbolo BZ, Mwanangombo DT, et al. Identification of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease from Aloe vera compounds: A molecular docking study. Chemical Physics Letters. 2020; 754:137751. Available:doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2020.137751
Mbadiko CM, Inkoto CL, Gbolo BZ, Lengbiye EM, Kilembe JT, Matondo A, et al. A mini review on the phytochemistry, toxicology and antiviral activity of some medically interesting Zingiberaceae species. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2020;9(4): 44-56. Available:doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i430150
Li-sheng W, Yi-ru W, Da-wei Y, Qing-quan L. A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents; 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.-2020.105948
Ngbolua KN, Mbadiko CM, Matondo A, Bongo GN, Inkoto CL, Gbolo BZ, et al. Review on ethno-botany, virucidal activity, phytochemistry and toxicology of Solanum genus: Potential bio-resources for the therapeutic management of COVID-19. European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety. 2020;12(7):35-48. DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2020/v12i730246
Mpiana PT, Ngbolua KN, Tshibangu DST, Kilembe JT, Gbolo ZB, Mwanangombo DT, et al. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. as a potential anti COVID-19 plant: A minireview of its antiviral activity. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2020;31(8):86-93. DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2020/v31i830261
Ngbolua KN, Mpiana PT, Mudogo V. Pharmacopée traditionnelle et lutte contre la drepanocytose: Méthodes de sélection et d’évaluation de l’activité des plantes médicinales. Editions Universitaires Européennes, Riga: Latvia; 2019. ISBN: 978-613-9-51486-1.
Lengbiye EM, Bongo GN, Kongumbeti G, Iteku JB, Inkoto CL, Tshiama C, et al. Isolona hexaloba Engl. & Diels: Phytochemistry, pharmacology and future directions: A mini-review. Plant. 2018;6(3): 53-59.
Inkoto CL, Bongo GN, Kapepula MP, Masengo AC, Gbolo ZB, Tshiama C, et al. Microscopic features and chromatographic fingerprints of selected Congolese medicinal plants: Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridley) K. Schum, Annona senegalensis Pers. and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels. Emergent Life Sciences Research. 2018;4(1):1-10.
Tshilanda DD, Onyamboko DNV, Babady PB, Ngbolua KN, Tshibangu DST, Dibwe EF, et al. Anti-sickling activity of ursolic acid isolated from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae). Natural Products and Bioprospecting. 2015;5:215-221. DOI: 10.1007/s13659-015-0070-6
Mpiana PT, Mudogo V, Tshibangu DST, Kitwa EK, Kanangila AB, Lumbu JBS, et al. Ngbolua, antisickling activity of anthocyanins from Bombax pentadrum, Ficus capensis and Ziziphus mucronata: Photodegradation effect. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;120: 413-418.
Marshall E. Health and wealth from medicinal aromatic plants. Rural Infrastructure and Agro-Industries Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Diversification Booklet Number. 2011;73:17. Brazier M; 2020. Available:https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10884 Accessed 27/04/2020.
Alamgeer, Waqas Y, Hira A, Amber S, Humayun R, Ishfaq AB, et al. Traditional medicinal plants used for respiratory disorders in Pakistan: A review of the ethno-medicinal and pharmacological evidence. Chinise Medicine. 2018;3:48. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-018-0204-y Anonymous; 2020. Available:https://www.agrimaroc.ma/covid-plantes-aromatiques-medicinales/ Accessed 26/4/2020.
Dhifi W, Bellili S, Jazi S, Bahloul N, Mnif W. Essential oils’ chemical characterization and investigation of some biological activities: A critical review. Medicines (Basel). 2016;3(4):25. DOI: 10.3390/medicines3040025
Winska K, Maczka W, Lyczko J, Grabarczyk M, Czubaszek A, Szumny A. Essential oils as antimicrobial agents-myth or real alternative? Molecules. 2019; 24(11):21-30. DOI: 0.3390/molecules24112130
Elfiky AA. Ribavirin, remdesivir, sofosbuvir, galidesivir and tenofovir against SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp): A molecular docking study. Life Science. 2020;25:117592. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117592
Akram A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2011;8. DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep187
Ramy MR, Sayed AF, Ghada IM. Chemical compositions, antiviral and antioxidant activities of seven essential oils. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2010;6(1):60-62.
Monica RL, Antoine MS, Rosa T, Giancarlo AS, Francesco M, Ilaria L, et al. Phytochemical analysis and In vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species. Chemistry and Biodiversity. 2008;5:61-470.
Jun A, Kazuhiro C, Masahiro T, Takao Y. Antiviral activity of lignans and their glycosides from Justicia procumbens. Phytochemistry. 1996;42:713-717.
Jürgen R, Schnitzler P, Suschke U, Saller R. Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and cytotoxic properties an overview. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009; 16:79–90. DOI: 10.1159/000207196
Rocío M, Raquel EO, Jairo RM, Elena ES. Inhibitory effect of essential oils obtained from plants grown in Colombia on yellow fever virus replication In vitro. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2009;8:8. DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-8-8
Ramling P, Meera M, Priyanka P. Phytochemical and pharmacological review on Laurus nobilis. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences. 2012;1(2):595-602.
Ameur E, Zyed R, Nabil ABS, Samia M, Youssef BS, Karima BHS, et al. Chemical composition of 8 Eucalyptus species essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12:81. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-81
Omonike OO, Toluwanimi EA, Peter AS, Temitope CF, Adekunle JA. In vitro antiviral activity of twenty-seven medicinal plant extracts from Southwest Nigeria against three serotypes of echoviruses. Virology Journal. 2018;15:110. Available:doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-1022-7
Ogunwande IA, Ascrizzi R, Guido F. Essential oil composition of Terminalia ivorensis A. chev. flowers from northern Nigeria. Trends Phytochemistry Research. 2019;3(1):77-82.
Garcia CC, Talarico L, Almeida N, Colombres S, Duschatzky C, Damonte EB. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina. Phytotherapy Research. 2003;17:073–1075.
Benovit SC, Silva LL, Salbego J, Loro VL, Mallmann CA, Baldisserotto B, et al. Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen. Biological Sciences. 2015;87(3):1675-1689. DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765201520140223
Saddi M, Sanna A, Cottiglia F, Chisu L, Casu L, Bonsignore L, et al. Antiherpes activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil and inhibition of lateral diffusion in vero cells. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2007;6:1–10.
Setzer WN, Vogler B, Schmidt JM, Leahy JG, Rives R. Antimicrobial activity of Artemisia douglasiana leaf essential oil. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:192-200.
Bourne KZ, Bourne N, Reising SF, Stanberry LR. Plant products as topical microbicide candidates: Assessment of In vitro and In vivo activity against herpes simplex type 2. Antiviral Research. 1999; 42:219-26.
Minami M, Kita M, Nakaya T, Yamamoto T, Kuriyama H, Imanishi J. The inhibitory effect of essential oils on herpes simplex virus type 1 replication In vitro. Microbiology Immunology. 2003;47:681-684.
Harkat ML, Asma B, Madani K, Said ZBOS, Rigou P, Grenier D, et al. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus from Algeria. Industrial Crops and Products. 2015;78:148-153.
Bailac PN, Gende L, Gascon A, Fritz R, Ponzi MI, Eguaras M, et al. Control of Ascosphaera apis and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae by the use of essential oils for obtaining beehive products without toxic residues. Molecular Medicinal Chemistry. 2006;11:1-2.
Koch C, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Essential oils inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2); in Preedy VR, Watson RR (eds). Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice. 2008;192–197.
Kizil S, Hasimi N, Tolan V, Kilinç E, Karatas H. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) essential oil. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 2010;38(3):99-103.
Loizzo MR, Saab AM, Tundis R, Statt GA, Menichini F, Lampronti I, et al. Phytochemical analysis and In vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species. Chemistry Biodiversity. 2008;5(3):461–470.
Koch C. Antivirale effekte ausgewahlter atherischer ole auf behullte Viren unter besonderer berucksichtigung des Herpes simplex Virus Typ 1 und 2.2005. Dissertation, Universitat Heidelberg; 2020.
Reichling J, Koch C, Stahl-Biskup E, Sojka C, Schnitzler P. Virucidal activity of a beta-triketone- rich essential oil of Leptospermum scoparium (manuka oil) against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in cell culture. Planta Medicine. 2005;71:1123-1127.
Porter NG, Smale PE, Nelson MA, Hay AJ, Van Klink JW, Dean CM. Variability in essential oil chemistry and plant morphology within a Leptospermum scoparium population. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 1998;36(1):125-133. DOI: 10.1080/0028825X.1998.9512551
Schuhmacher A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 In vitro. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:504-510.
Busatta C, Vidal RS, Popiolski AS, Mossi AJ, Dariva C, Rodrigues MRA, et al. Application of Origanum majorana L. essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in sausage. Food Microbiology. 2008;25:207-211.
Venditti A, Serrillia AM, Vittori S, Papa F, Maggi F, Di Cecco M, et al. Secondary Metabolites from Pinus mugo Turra subsp. mugo growing in the Majella National Park (Central Apennines, Italy). Chemistry Biodiversity. 2013;10:2091-2100.
De-Logu A, Loy G, Pellerano ML, Bonsignore L, Schivo ML. Inactivation of HSV-1 and HSV-2 and prevention of cell-to-cell virus spread by Santolina insularis essential oil. Antiviral Research. 2000; 48:177-185.
Siddiqui YM, Ettayebi M, Haddad AM, Al-Ahdal MN. Effect of essential oils on the enveloped viruses: Antiviral activity of oregano and clove oils on herpes simplex virus type 1 and Newcastle disease virus. Medical Science Research. 1996;24:185-186.
Sahin F, Güllüce M, Daferera D, Sökmen A, Sökmen M, Polissiou M, et al. Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Food Control. 2004;15:549-557.
Aboaba SA, Igumoye H, Flamini G. Chemical composition of the leaves and stem bark of Sterculia tragacantha, Anthocleista vogelii and leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2017;29(1):85-92.
Oladimeji AO. Variation in pre-extraction processes influences the differences in chemical constituent, quantity and biochemical activities of volatile oils from Crinum jagus (Th.) D.: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Journal of Taibah University for Sciences. 2018;12(6):748-753. DOI: 10.1080/16583655.2018.1539446
Folashade KO, Omoregie EH. Essential oil of Lippia multiflora Moldenke: A review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2012;2(1):15-23.
Lien CC, Lean TN, Pei WCH, Win C, Chun CL. Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of. Ocimum basilicum. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. 2005;32: 811-816.
Jemâa BJM, Haouel S, Bouaziz M, Khouja ML. Seasonal variations in chemical composition and fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils against three moth pests of stored dates in Tunisia. Journal of Stored Products Research. 2012;48:61-67.
Mann TS, Babu GDK, Guleria S, Singh B. Comparison of Eucalyptus cinerea essential oils produced by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Natural Product Communications. 2011; 6(1):107-110.
Bailac PN, Duschatzky C, Carrascull A, Ponzi M, Firpo N. Composition of the essential oils of Tessaria absinthioides (Hook et Arn.) D. candole. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 1998;10(1):89-91.
Duschatzky CB, Possetto ML, Talarico LB, García CC, Michis F, Almeida NM, et al. Evaluation of chemical and antiviral properties of essential oils from South American plants. Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy. 2005;16:247-251.
Matondo A, Thomas R, Tsalu PV, Mukeba CT, Mudogo V. α-methylation and α-fluorination electronic effects on the regioselectivity of carbonyl groups of uracil by H and triel bonds in the interaction of U, T and 5FU with HCl and TrH3 (Tr = B, Al). Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling. 2019;88:237–246. Available:doi.org/10.1016/j.jmgm.2019.02.006
Kasende OE, Matondo A, Muya JT, Scheiner S. Interactions between temozolomide and guanine and its S and Se-substituted analogues. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry. 2017;117: 157−169. DOI: 10.1002/qua.25294
Lin LT, Hsu WH, Lin CC. Antiviral natural products and herbal medicines. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. 2014;4(1):24-35.
Abstract View: 2912 times
PDF Download: 1986 times