Main Article Content
Aims: In this study, we determined that whether the liquid extracts of the above-ground parts of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Rubus idaeus L. have antimutagenic effects against mitomycin C in human peripheral lymphocytes, chromosome aberration (CA), micronucleus (MN) and mitotic index (MI) tests.
Methodology: Blood samples of the negative control group (Group I) were allowed to react in a cell culture medium without any treatment, while positive control group (Group II) was allowed to interact in a cell culture medium supplemented with mitomycin-C (MMC) at a dose of 0.3 μL /mL for each chromosome medium. Blood samples of the other groups were allowed to react for 24 hours with 0.3 μL /mL MMC and V. myrtillus L. (Group III, IV, V and VI), and R. idaeus L. (VII, VIII, IX and X) extracts in 0.2 μL /mL, 0.4 μL /mL, 0.8 μL /mL and 1.6 μL /mL doses for each of cell cultures. At the end of the incubation period, culture cells were evaluated by chromosomal aberrations, mitotic, micronucleus and nuclear division index tests.
Results: Compared with Group II, it was determined that mitotic, nuclear division and nuclear cytotoxic cleavage indices were increased when chromosome aberrations and micronucleus indexes were decreased in extract groups. When we compared to extract groups and group II, we observed that chromosome aberrations and micronucleus index decreased in extract groups, while mitotic, nuclear division and nuclear cytotoxic cleavage indices were increased.
Conclusion: It was concluded that aqueous extracts of V. myrtillus L. and Rubus idaeus L. had significantly antimutagenic effects on the human peripheral lymphocyte cells at the working doses.
Wang H, Guo X, Hu X, Li T, Fu X, Liu RH. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.). Food Chem. 2017;217:773-781.
Bunea A, Rugină D, Sconţa Z, Pop RM, Pintea A, Socaciu C, VanCamp J. Anthocyanin determination in blueberry extracts from various cultivars and their antiproliferative and apoptotic properties in B16-F10 metastatic murine melanoma cells. Phytochem. 2013;95:436-444.
Nagase H, Sasaki K, Kito H, Haga A, Sato T. Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in-vitro. Planta Med. 1998;64(3):216-219.
Katsube N, Iwashita K, Tsushida, T, Yamaki K, Kobori M. Induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the anthocyanins. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 2003;51(1):68-75.
Bowen-Forbes CS, Zhang Y, Nair MG. Anthocyanin content, antioxidant, anti-Inflammatory and anticancer properties of blackberry and raspberry fruits. J Food Compos Anal. 2010;23:554-560.
Krauze-Baranowska M, Głód D, Kula M, Majdan M, Hałasa R, Matkowski A, Kawiak A. Chemical composition and biological activity of Rubus idaeus shoots a traditional herbal remedy of eastern Europe. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14(1):480.
Ljevar A, Ćurko N, Tomašević M, Radošević K, Gaurina SV and Kovačević GK. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and ın-vitro cytotoxicity assessment of fruit wines. Food Technol Biotech. 2016;54(2):145-155.
Huang YW, Chuang CY, Hsieh YS, Chen PN, Yang SF, Chen YY, Chang YC. Rubus idaeus extract suppresses migration and invasion of human oral Cancer by inhibiting MMP‐2 through modulation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Environ Toxicol. 2017;32(3):1037-1046.
Fenech M. The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay and its application in radiation biodosimetry. Health physiol. 2010;98(2):234-243.
Üstüner D. Kromozom kırıkları ve mikronükleus-apoptoz bağlantısı. TÜBAV Bil Derg. 2011;4(1):64-69.
Şekeroğlu V, Şekeroğlu ZA. Genotoksik hasarın belirlenmesinde mikronükleus testi. Turk Hij. Den Biyol. Derg. 2011;68(4):241-252.
Çelik A, Ateş NA. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges ın cultured human peripheral blood lymphocyte treated with metronidazole in- vitro. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2006;1:85-94.
Fındıklı Z, Türkoğlu Ş. Glyphos ve DDVP’nin Allium cepa L.’da mitoz bölünme ve kromozomlar üzerine etkisi. CSJ Derg. 2010;31(2):49-62.
Norppa H, Bonassi S, Hansteen IL, Hagmar L, Strömberg U, Rössner P, Boffetta P, Lindholm C, Gundy S, Lazutka J, Cebulska-Wasilewska A, Fabiánová E, Srám RJ, Knudsen LE, Barale R, Fucic A. Chromosomal aberrations and SCEs as biomarkers of cancer risk. Mutat Res. 2006;30:37-45.
Paz-y-mino C, Bustamante G, Sanchez ME, Leone PE. Cytogenetic monitoring in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in ecuador. J Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(11):1077-1080.
Rothfuss A, Schutz P, Bochum S, Volm T, Elberhard E, Kreİnberg R, Vogel V, Speıt G. Induced micronucleus frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes as a screening test for carriers of a BRCA1 mutation in breast cancer families. J Cancer Res. 2000;60:390-394.
Fenech M. The in vitro Micronucleus technique. Mutat Res. 2000;455:81-95.
Vanisree M, Lee CY, Lo SF, Nalawade SM, Lin CY, Tsay HS. Studies on the production of some important secondary metabolites from medicinal plants by plant tissue culture. Bot Bull Acad Sin. 2004;45:1–22.
Lila MA. Valuable secondary products from in-vitro culture. Chapter 24: Plant Development and Biotechnology. CRC Pres. 2005;285–289.
Oskay D, Oskay M. Bitki sekonder metabolitlerinin biyoteknolojik önemi. Ecologic Life Sci. 2009;4(2):31-41.
Madic V, Jovanović J, Stojilković A, Jušković M and Vasiljević P. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of ‘anti-diabetic’herbal preparation and five medicinal plants: an Allium cepa assay. Biol Nyssana. 2017;8:151-158.
Gonzalez-Hernández S, González-Ramírez D, Dávila-Rodríguez MI, Jimenez-Arellanez A, Meckes-Fischer M, Said-Fernández S, Cortés-Gutiérrez EI. Absence of toxicity and genotoxicity in an extract of Rubus coriifolius. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15:(4).
Nowak A, Sójka M, Klewicka, E, Lipińska L, Klewicki R, Kołodziejczyk K. Ellagitannins from Rubus idaeus L. exert geno-and cytotoxic effects against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. J Agric Food Chem. 2017; 65(14):2947-2955.
Assad NK, Dheeba BI, Mohammad FI and Hamad A. Anti-cancer activity of the Rubus idaeus extracts against HepG2 and L20B cell lines using tissue culture technique. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci. 2015;7(2):19-23.
Durgo K, Belščak-Cvitanović A, Stančić A, Franekić J, Komes D. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma. J Med Food. 2012;15(3):258-268.
Brown EM, McDougall GJ, Stewart D, Pereira-Caro, G, González-Barrio R, Allsopp P, Gill CI. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation. Plos One. 2012;7(11):e49740.
Kreander K, Galkin A, Vuorela S, Tammela P. In-vitro mutagenic potential and effect on permeability of co-administered drugs across Caco-2 cell monolayers of Rubus idaeus and its fortified fractions. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58:1545-1552.
Ozkan O., Gul S, Kart A, Cicek BA, Kilic K. In-vitro antimutagenicity of Allium tuncelianum ethanol extract against induction of chromosome aberration by mutagenic agent mitomycine C. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2013;19(2):259-262.
Tolentino F, Araújo PA, Marques E de S, Petreanu M. In-vivo evaluation of the genetic toxicity of Rubus niveus Thunb. (Rosaceae) extract and initial screening of its potential chemoprevention against doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;164:89-95.
Alves AB, dos Santos, RS, Calil Sde S, Niero R. Genotoxic assessment of Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae) extract in-vivo and its potential chemoprevention against cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;153:694-700.
Aaby K, Grimmer S and Holtung L. Extraction of phenolic compounds from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) press residue: effects on phenolic composition and cell proliferation. LWT-FoodSci Technol. 2013;54(1):27-264.
Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T., Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;5: 675–683.
Pandir D, Kara O. Chemopreventive effect of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage as shown by the comet assay in peripheral blood of rats. Biologia. 2014;69(6):811-816.
Bao L, Yao XS, Yau CC, Tsi D, Chia CS, Nagai H, Kurihara H. Protective eﬀects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7803–7807.
Bryl‐Górecka P, Sathanoori R, Arevström L, Landberg R, Bergh C, Evander M, Erlinge D. Bilberry supplementation after myocardial infarction decreases microvesicles in blood and affects endothelial vesiculation. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2020;64(20): 2000108.
Macar O, Macar TK, Çavuşoğlu K, Yalçın E. Protective effects of anthocyanin-rich bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract against copper (II) chloride toxicity. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020;27(2):1428-1435.