Toxicological Effect of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn

Main Article Content

J. K. Kone
A. K. Onifade

Abstract

Euphorbia heterophylla has been reported to possess enormous medicinal benefits hence there is a need for holistic research on its toxicological effects. Four different solvents (cold and hot water, chloroform and 80% methanol) were used to extract the aerial parts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. Experimental albino rats were obtained from Federal University of Technology Akure’s Microbiology Department Animal House. Toxicological analysis of Euphorbia heterophylla extracts was carried out on the experimental albino rats. The animals were grouped into thirteen with three rats in a group different concentrations of the extracts were administered orally to different groups of the rats for a period of two weeks (14 days). Sterile distilled water was administered to the negative control group. During the 14 days of extracts administration, the animals were observed for clinical manifestations like salivation, nervousness, imitability, itching of the nose and diarrhoea. After the expiration of the two weeks, the animals were sacrificed and vital organs like heart, liver, kidney and intestine were harvested and examined for any degenerative changes and lesions. Blood samples were collected before and after the administration of the extracts to check for blood parameters (Packed Cell Volume (PCV), white blood cell count (total and differential), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and haemoglobin (Hb) estimation. The toxicological results of the extracts showed various degrees of abnormalities detected in the histopathological sections of the intestine, kidney and the heart. It was found that all the extracts at different concentrations burnt the intestinal walls of all the animals tested. There were significant reductions in the total white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophil counts while there was a significant increase in the lymphocytes count after the administration of the extracts. The findings of this study revealed that Euphorbia heterophylla had toxicological effects on the albino rats organs but increases there lymphocytes count, boosting their immune system, however advance researches to eliminate the toxic phytochemicals from the extract is recommended.

Keywords:
Euphorbia heterophylla, toxicological analysis, histopathological, immune system, phytochemicals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kone, J. K., & Onifade, A. K. (2021). Toxicological Effect of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 12(3), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i330207
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ozioma EO, Okaka AN. Herbal medicines in african traditional medicine. In Herbal medicine, Chapter 10. IntechOpen Ed. 2019;191-214.

Mensah ML, Komlaga G, Forkuo AD, Firempong C, Anning AK, Dickson RA. "Toxicity and safety implications of herbal medicines used in Africa", Herbal Medicine. 2019;63.

Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Afnica. Sth edition spectrum Bks Lid, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2006;289.

Debjoy B, Sinchan A, Arijit B, Anil B, Parthadeb G, Soumen S. Ocimum phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health, phytochemicals in human health, Venketeshwer Rao, Dennis Mans and Leticia Rao, IntechOpen; 2019. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.88555.

Mintah SO, Asafo-Agyei T, Archer MA, Junior PA, Boamah D, Kumadoh D. Medicinal plants for treatment of prevalent diseases. In Pharmacognosy Medicinal Plants; Perveen, S. Al-Taweel. A. Eds.; IntechOpen: London, UK; 2019. Available:https://www.intechopen.com/books/pharmacognosy-medicinal-plants/medicinal-plants-for-treatment-of-prevalent-diseases (Accessed on 20 September 2020).

Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson D, Lightfoot D. Phytochemicals: Extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Plants. 2017;6(42):1-23.

Kutama RM, Adbulkadi RS, Kwalli SA, Chiroma G. Phytochemical compositions in some Nigerian medicinal plants and their pharma-cological properties: A review. Journal of Anesthesiology. 2018;6(1):15-25.

Olaniyan AB. Maize: Panacea for hunger in Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science 9. 2015;155–174.

Al-Sultan SI, Hussein YA. Acute toxicity of Euphorbia heliscopia n Rats. Pak. J. Nutri. 2006;5(2):135-140.

Omale James, Friday, Emmanuel. Phytochemical composition, bioactivity and wound healing potential of Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research. 2010;1.

Takim FO, Olaoye AO, Adeyemo J. survey of Passiflora foetida L. and associated weed species on arable crops in Ballah, Southern Guinea Savanna Zone Of Nigeria, Agrosearch, 2012;12(2):117 – 12.

Bentancur-Galvis LA, Morales GE, Forero JR. Cytotoxic and antiviral activities of colombian medicinal plant extracts of the Euphorbia genus. Mem Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 2002;97(4):54 –546.

Egharevba RKA, Ikhatua MI. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the treatment of various skin diseases in Ovia North East, Edo State, Nigeria. Nigerian Tribune. 2008;1-4.

Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Roy. Bot. Gard. Ken. 1994(2):12–150.

Salehi B, Iriti M, Vitalini S, Antolak H, Pawlikowska E, Kręgiel D. Euphorbia-derived natural products with potential for use in health maintenance. Biomolecules. 2019;9:337.

Adedapo AA, Abatan MO. Olorunsogo. Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats. Vdet. Arhic (2004)74: 53-64.

Quiroz D. Do not fear the supernatural!: The relevance of ritual plant use for traditional culture, nature conservation, and human health in western Africa; 2015.

Adenola OJ. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of Allium sativum L. and Nymphaea lotus L. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research. 2020;6(2):7-24.

Onifade AK. Phytotheraphy: A random walk through a random forest Inaugural ecture Series 57, delivered at The Federal University of Technology Akure. 2010;7.

Onwusonye JC, Augustine Uwakwe A, Kingsley Patrick Iwuanyanwu. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of methanol leaf extracts of Annona squamosa linn. in mice. Sky Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2014;3(7):53-59.

Kordali S, Cakir A, Drum ME. Antifungal activity of the leaves of 5 pistacies from Turkey. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:164-167.

Campos AR, Rao VSN, Printed AC. Investigation in the antinoceptive activity of crude extracts from Croton cajicara leaves in mice. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(1)P;16-120.

Tanker M, Tanker N. Phamacognosy, Akara University Press. Ist edition. 1990;375.

Islam A, Sayeed MS, Model T, Kham GR. Antimicrobial activity and cytoxicity of Zanthozylin budrunga. Fitoterapia. 2001;72:428-430.

Oyedum UM. Antimicrobial and toxicological effects of leaf extracts of Eurphorbia heterophylla on some enteric bacteria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science. 2017;23(1):59.