In vitro and In vivo Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Moringa stenopetala in Mice Models

Main Article Content

Samson Sahile Salile
Teferra Abula

Abstract

Background: Epilepsy is a debilitating neurological disorder that directly affects approximately 65 million people worldwide. In the search of safe and effective antiepileptics traditional treatment practices are one area of research to obtain novel molecules. Moringa stenopetala root is claimed to be used for epilepsy treatment in Konso area, Southern Ethiopia. But there was no scientific research evidence for the claimed use of the plant.

Objective: This study was conducted to explore the anticonvulsant activity of hydro-alcoholic (80% methanol) extract of root of Moringa stenopetala.

Methods: The dry residues of the plant extract was used for the test. In vitro 0Mg2+ mice model at dose 0.7 mg/kg of extract, diazepam(3μM) and untreated brain slice groups were used to compare the presence of seizure like event (SLE). In vivo pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model with 85 mg/kg subcutaneously was used to compare the seizure on set time with two extract doses and diazepam 5 mg/kg. The data was presented with mean± standard error. In maximum electric shock (MES) model 54 mA was passed for 0.2 second transauricularly in mice. The mean time of hind limb extension was recorded for doses 400 mg/kg and 800mg/kg of the extract and 10 mg/kg phenytoin. The means were compared for statistical significance using one way ANOVA post hoc LSD whereas proportions were compared using Fishers exact test with P-value < .05.

Results: M. stenopetala extract has shown statistically significant anticonvulsant activity in vitro compared to control (P<.05). A positive control, the known anticonvulsant diazepam (3μM), showed significant anticonvulsant activity (P<.05). In vivo MES model showed statistically significant anti-seizure activity at both doses (P<.05). But the crude extract failed to show statistically significant activity at all doses of PTZ model (P>.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that crude extract of Moringa stenopetala exhibited anti-convulsant effect both in vitro and in vivo MES models.

Keywords:
Moringa stenopetala, seizures, epilepsy, anticonvulsant, 0 Mg2 model, maximal electroshock seizure model, pentylenetetrazol seizure model.

Article Details

How to Cite
Salile, S. S., & Abula, T. (2021). In vitro and In vivo Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Moringa stenopetala in Mice Models. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 12(3), 16-23. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i330208
Section
Original Research Article

References

Devinsky O, Vezzani A, Terence J, O’Brien NJ, Ingrid E. Scheffer, curtis10 M de, perucca and P. Epilepsy. Nat Rev. 2018; 3(18024):4222–31.

WHO. Epilepsy [Internet]; 2019. [cited 2019 Apr 19]. Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/epilepsy

WHO. Epilepsy in the who african region: Bridging the Gap [Internet]; 2004. [cited 2019 Apr 11]. Available:https://www.who.int/mental_health/management/epilepsy_in_African-region.pdf

Sayyah M, Khodaparast A, Yazdi A, Sardari S. Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice. DARU, J Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2011;19(4):301–5. Available:http://www.embase.com/search/results?subaction=viewrecord&from=export&id=L362787802%0Ahttp://journals.tums.ac.ir/PdfMed.aspx?pdf_med=/upload_files/pdf/19411.pdf&manuscript_id=19411

Mulugeta Tesemma, Legesse Adane, Yinebeb Tariku DM, SD. Isolation of compounds from acetone extract of root wood of Moringa stenopetala and evaluation of their antibacterial activities. Res J Med Plants. 2013;7:32–47.

Zhu HL, Wan JB, Wang YT, Li BC, Xiang C, He J, et al. Medicinal compounds with antiepileptic /anticonvulsant activities. Epilepsia. 2014;55(1):3–16.

Asfaw T, Helisob T. Assessment of the indigenous knowledge and use of traditional medicinal plants in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Int J Med Plants Nat Prod. 2017;3(1).

Löscher W. Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Seizure [Internet]. 2011;20(5):359–68. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2011.01.003

Bialer M, White HS. Key factors in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2010;9:68–82.

Debella A. Manual for phytochemical screening of medicinal plants. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; 2002.

OECD. Organisation for economic cooperation and development. guidelines for the testing of chemicals, OECD 423. Acute oral toxicity : Acute toxic class method. Oecd Guidel Test Chem. 2001;1–14.

Forman CJ, Tomes H, Mbobo B, Burman RJ, Jacobs M, Baden T. Openspritzer : An open hardware pressure ejection system for reliably delivering picolitre volumes. 2017;1–11.

Dreier J, Heinemann U. Regional and time dependent variations of low Mg2+ induced epileptiform activity in rat temporal cortex slices. Exp Brain Res. 1991;3:581–96.

Dreier JP, Zhang CL, Heinemann U, Jp D, C-l Z, Phenytoin HU. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, and midazolam fail to stop status epilepticus-like activity induced by low magnesium in rat entorhinal slices, but can prevent its development. Acta Neurol Scand. 1998;98(3):154–60.

Raimondo J V, Heinemann U, de Curtis M, Goodkin HP, Dulla CG, Janigro D, et al. Methodological standards for in vitro models of epilepsy and epileptic seizures. A TASK1-WG4 report of the AES/ ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE. Epilepsia [Internet]. 2017;58:40–52. [cited 2019 Apr 13]. Available:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/epi.13901

Anderson WW, Anderson WW, Lewis D V., Scott Swartzwelder H, Wilson WA. Magnesium-free medium activates seizure-like events in the rat hippocampal slice. Brain Res. 1986;398(1):215–9.

Mody I, Lambert JD, Heinemann U. Low extracellular magnesium induces epileptiform activity and spreading depression in rat hippocampal slices. J Neurophysiol. 1987;57(3):869–88.

Anderson WW, Lewis D V, Swartzwelder HS, Wilson WA. Magnesium-free medium activates seizure-like events in the rat hippocampal slice. Brain Res. 1986; 398(1):215–9.

Dreier JP, Zhang CL, Heinemann U. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, and midazolam fail to stop status epilepticus-like activity induced by low magnesium in rat entorhinal slices, but can prevent its development. Acta Neurol Scand. 1998; 98(3):154–60.

Qaddoumi MG, Ananthalakshmi KVV, Phillips OA, Edafiogho IO, Kombian SB. Evaluation of anticonvulsant actions of dibromophenyl enaminones using in vitro and in vivo seizure models. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):1–10.

Hegde K, Thakker SP, Joshi AB, Shastry CS, Chandrashekhar KS. Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa carandas Linn. root extract in experimental mice. Trop J Pharm Res. 2009;8(2):117–25.

Insuasty H, Castro É, Escobar JC, Murillo V, Rodríguez J. Assessment of the anticonvulsant activity of Resumen Introduction. Rev Colomb ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas. 2014;43(1):22–38.

Gokila Devi T, Revathi A, Gopinath LR, Suryadevara N, Archaya S, Bhuvaneswari R. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites of moringa oleifera and its anticancer activity. Int J Adv Interdiscip Res. 2017;4(3):01.

Manikkoth S, Joy A, Kunhikatta S. Anti-convulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa concanensis leaves in Swiss albino mice. Arch Med Heal Sci. 2014; 1(1):6.

Asif M. Anticonvulsant potential of some medicinal plants and their beneficial properties. 2013;3(4):1–13.

Tesemma M, Adane L, Tariku Y, Muleta D, Demise S. Isolation of compounds from acetone extract of root wood of moringa stenopetala and evaluation of their antibacterial activities. Res J Med Plant. 2013;7(1):32–47. [cited 2019 Apr 18]. Available:http://www.scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjmp.2013.32.47

Legesse Adane MT, YT. Isolation of compounds from root bark extracts of Moringa stenopetala and evaluation of their antibacterial activities. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2019;8(3):4228–44.

Bekele B, Adane L, Tariku Y, Hailu A. Evaluation of antileishmanial activities of triglycerides isolated from roots of Moringa stenopetala. Med Chem Res. 2013; 22(10):4592–9.

Bennett RN, Mellon FA, Foidl N, Pratt JH, Dupont MS, Perkins L, et al. Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L. (Horseradish Tree) and Moringa stenopetala L. J Agric Food Chem [Internet]. 2003;51(12):3546–53. [cited 2019 Apr 18] Available:https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf0211480

Commentary I. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epilepsy The n- 3 PUFAs as possible anticonvulsant therapy : Initial interest. 2010;51(8):1348–58.

Taha AY, Burnham WMI, Auvin S. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51(8):1348–58.