Scientific Basis for the Innovative Uses of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) mentioned by Unani Scholars in different ailments

Main Article Content

Jamal Akhtar
Fouzia Bashir
Salma Bi

Abstract

The Unani Medicine is a comprehensive medical system, which meticulously deals with the various states of health and disease. It provides promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative healthcare. The fundamentals, diagnosis and treatment modalities of the system are based on scientific principles and holistic concepts of health and healing. The history of Unani Medicine is traced back to ancient Egypt and Babylon, but Hippocrates (460–370 BC) is the father of Unani Medicine who set the ground for Medicine to develop it as a systematic science. Other scholars like Galen (129-200 AD); Rabban Ṭabarī (775-890 AD), al Rāzī (865-925 AD) and Ibn Sīnā (980-1037 AD) developed Unani Medicine to great heights. The system is enriched with detailed therapeutic uses of plant, mineral and animal origin drugs. Ibn Baytār’s classical pharmacopoeia describes 1400 medicinal plants and minerals, while the largest Indian compendium by Muḥammad Najm al Ghanī published in 1930, describes 2500 natural products. Unani scholars retain its traditional strength successfully and also benefitting from contemporary scientific development over the years. The system fully appropriated the paradigm of validation of existing knowledge on modern scientific parameters as well as new action of existing drugs was also discovered. Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) is a commonly used medicinal plant of Unani Medicine which has Blood Purifier, Abortifacient, Analgesic, Astringent, Brain Tonic, Diuretic properties and used in the treatment of different diseases, e.g. Jarb-o-Hikka (Scabies), Juzaam (Leprosy), Bars (Leukoderma), Iltehaab-e-Mafasil (Arthritis), Dunbal (Boils) and Zarba-o-Saqta (bruises), Su'aal (Bronchitis), Harq-o-Salq (Burn and Scald), Humrah Dimaaghia (Erysipelas), Hasbah (Measles) and Judree (Small Pox) and Suda’ (Headache). This paper is a view to present a snapshot of the scientific aspects and the relevance of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) mentioned by Unani Physicians in the contemporary and emerging health scenario.

Keywords:
Henna, medicinal uses, antifungal activity, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory

Article Details

How to Cite
Akhtar, J., Bashir, F., & Bi, S. (2021). Scientific Basis for the Innovative Uses of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) mentioned by Unani Scholars in different ailments. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 14(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i130234
Section
Review Article

References

Rehman R, Pasha SA, Katoch DC, Siddiqui KM, Khan MA, Jamil SS. Unani system of medicine-the science of health and healing, Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi. 2013;1-5.

Sastri BN. The Wealth of India: Raw Materials, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), CSIR, New Delhi. 1962; 47-50.

Kumar S, Singh YV, Singh M. (Agro-History, uses, ecology and distribution of henna (Lawsonia inermis L. syn. Alba Lam). Henna: Cultivation, Improvement, and Trade. Jodhpur. 2005;11–12.

Ibne Sina. Al Qanoon, Matba Munshi Nawal Kishor, Lucknow. 1931;100.

Baytar I. Aljamili mufradat al-Adviya wal-Aghziya, Vol-II, Urdu Translation by Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi. 1985;85-87.

Kabiruddin. Makhzanul Mufradat Khawasul Adviya, Sheikh Mohd Bashir and Sons, Lahore. 1955;552-553.

Yusuf. Behrul Jawahar, Bakar Khana Haji Wali Mohd, Lahore. 1530;108.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun. 1984;2:1076-80.

Ghani. Khazainul Adviya, Matba Munshi Nawal Kishor, Lucknow. 1888;1:890-893.

Tariq NA. Tajul Mufaradat (Khawasul Advia), Idara Kitabul Shifa, New Delhi. 2004;713-14.

Alvi MH. Tohfatul Momineen Makhzanul Adviya, Matba Munshi Nawal Kishor, Lucknow. 1913;317-318.

Khan H. Qarabadin Kabir, Vol-II, Matba Munshi Nawal Kishor, Lucknow. 1880;28-29.

Panda H, Hota D. Handbook of aromatic and essential oil plants, Bio Green Books, New Delhi. 2013; 260.

Hakim A. Bustanul Mufradat, Taraqqi Urdu Publication, Lucknow. 1991;325.

Khan A. Qarabadeen e Azam, Aijaz Publishing House, Delhi. 1996;86.

Panda H, Hota D. Handbook of aromatic and essential oil plants, Bio Green Books, New Delhi. 2013; 260.

Anonymous. Standardization of single drugs of Unani Medicine, Part I, Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, New Delhi. 1987;109-115.

Qarshi AH, Al Aqsarai, Matba Munshi Nawal Kishor, Lucknow. 1908;1:136.

Harichand. Tajul Aqaqeer, Nirala Jogi Publications, Panipat. 1935;460-469.

Anonymous. The Useful Plants of India, National Institute of Science Communication, CSIR, New Delhi. 2000; 320.

Trivedi PC. Medicinal Plants Traditional Knowledge, I. K. International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 2006;34-49.

Gozubuyuk GS, Aktas E, Yigit N, An ancient plant Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) Determination of in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes species. Journal De Mycologie Médicale; 2014. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2014.07.002.

Nawasrah A,AlNimr A, Ali AA. Antifungal Effect of henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis, Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(5): 520.

Suleiman EA, Mohamed EA, In Vitro activity of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) on some pathogenic fungi. Journal of Mycology. 2014;1-5.

Tripathi RD, Srivastava HS, Dixit SN, A fungitoxic principle from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. Experientia. 1978;34(1):51–52.

Saadabi MAA, Evaluation of Lawsonia inermis L. (Sudanese Henna) Leaf Extracts as an Antimicrobial Agent, Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;2: 419-423.

Omar A. Habhal, Ali A Al-Jabri, Abdulghaffar H. El-Hag, Zahra H. Al-Mahrooqi, Nassser A. Al-Hashmi: In vitro antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis L.. A pilot study on the omani henna, Saudi Medical Journal. 2005;26(1):447-450.

Natarajan MR and Lalitha D K., Leaf extracts of Lawsonia inermis L. as antifungal agent, Current Science. 1987; 56(19):1021-1022.

Singh VK, Pandey DK. Fungitoxic studies on bark extract of Lawsonia inermis L. against ringworm fungi. Hindustan antibiotics bulletin. 1989; 31(1-2): 32-35.

Mansour D, Kahlauche A, Trifa W. In vitro evaluation of anti fungal effect of Lawsonia inermis L., Pistacia lentiscus and Juglans regia. International Journalof Aromatic and Medicinal Plants. 2012;2(2):2249-2350.

Sharma KK, Saikia R, Kotoky K, Kalita JC, Devi R. Antifungal activity of Solanum melongena L, Lawsonia inermis L. L. and Justicia gendarussa B. against Dermatophytes. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology Research. 2011;3(3):1635-1640.

Raveesha KA, Satish S, Mohana DC, Raghavendra M.P. Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus spp. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2007, 3(1): 109-119.

Abulyazid I., Elsayed Mahdy ME, Ragaa Ahmed M. Biochemical study for the effect of henna (Lawsonia inermis) on Escherichia coli Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2010; 3(6): 265–273.

Rahmoun N, Boucherit-Otmani Z, Boucherit K, Benabdallah M, Choukchou-Braham N, Antifungal activity of the Algerian Lawsonia inermis L. (henna), Pharmaceutical Biology. 2013;51(1):131-135.

Samadi FM, Suhail S, Sonam M, Sharma N, Singh S, Gupta S, Dobhal A, Pradhan H. Antifungal efficacy of herbs. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, 2019;9 (1):28-32.

Yaralizadeh M, Abedi P, Namjoyan F, Fatahinia M, Nezamivand Chegini S. A comparison of the effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Iranian henna) and clotrimazole on Candida albicans in rats Journal de Mycologie Medicale. 2018;28(3):419-423.

Chaibi R, Romdhane M, Ferchichi A, Bouajila J, Chaibi R, Assessment of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic activities of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) flowers, Journal of Natural Products. 2015;8:85-92.

Ali BH, Bashir AK, Tanira MO. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects of Lawsonia Inermis L. (Henna) in Rats, Pharmacology. 1995;51(6):356-63.

Saba M, Aravanan P, Ilavarasan R, Anti-inflammatory activity of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves, Indian Drugs. 2007;44(3):224-226.

Vijayaraj R, Sri Kumaran N. Protective effect of Lawsonia inermis Linn. on chronic inflammation in rats, International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2018;12(3):549-554.

Nesa L, Munira S, Mollika S, Islam M, Choin H,Chouduri AU, Naher N, Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS depressant activities of methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. barks in mice, Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014;4(4):287–296.

Awadh ANA, Julich WD, Kusnick C and Lindequist U: Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial andcytotoxic activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;74:173–179.

Ali KS, Al-hood FA, Obad K, Alshakka M, Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Yemeni Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) against some Bacterial Pathogens., Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2016;11(2):24-27.

Rao NB, Kumari OS, Goud GR. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna), Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2016;3(2):158.

Malekzadeh F, Antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis L., Applied Microbiology. 1968,16(4):663-664.

Dahake R, Kamble I, Study on antimicrobial potential and preliminary phytochemical screening of Lawsonia inermis Linn., International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2015; 6(8): 3344-3350.

Dhaouadi K, Meliti W, Dallali S, Belkhir M, Ouerghemmi S, Sebei H, Fattouch S, Commercial Lawsonia inermis L. dried leaves and processed powder: Phytochemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, and allelopathic activities., Industrial Crops and Products. 2015;77: 544-552.

Gull I, Sohail M, Aslam MS, Athar MA., Phytochemical, toxicological and antimicrobial evaluation of Lawsonia inermis extracts against clinical isolates of pathogenic bacteria., Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2013;12:36.

Kawo AH, Kwa AM, Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts and fractions of ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaf. International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2011;2(12):510-516.

Abdelraouf A, Amany A, Alyazji, Nedaa A, Antibacterial, antifungal and synergistic effect of Lawsonia inermis L., Punica granatum and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Annals of Alquds Medicine. 2011;(7): 33-41.

Jothiprakasam V, Ramesh S, Rajasekharan SK. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis linn. (henna) leaf extracts against reference bacterial strains and clinically important ampc βeta-lactamases producing proteus mirabilis, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;5(1):219-222.

Ray, PG, Majumdar, SK, Antimicrobial activity of some Indian plants. Econ Bot. 1976;30:317.

Raja W, Ovais M, Dubey A, Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis L. leaf extract. International Journal of Microbiological Research. 2013;4 (1):33-36.

Habbal O, Hasson SS, El-Hag AH, Al-Mahrooqi Z, Al-Hashmi N, Al-Bimani Z, Al-Balushi MS, Al-Jabri AA. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011,1 (3):173–176.

Sukanya SL, Sudisha J, Hariprasad P, Niranjana SR, Prakash HS, Fathima SK. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plants against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(23):6677-6682.

Nadjib MR, Zahia BA, Mohammed B, Kebir B, Noureddine CB. Antimicrobial activities of the henna extract and some synthetic naphthoquinones derivatives. American Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2013;1(1):16-22.

Al-Rimawi M, Al-Masri M, Husein N, Al-Hinnawi ANT, Al-Masimi O, Sabra L, Natural antimicrobial activity of Lawsonia inermis L. and Indigo tinctoria against clinically isolated microorganisms, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2018;10(1):191-194.

Hadef KZ and Boufeldja W, Antimicrobial Activity of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaf Extract Collected from South of Algeria Touat (Adrar) and Tidikelt (In Salah), Journal of Plant Sciences. 2020;15(1):9-16.

Muhammad HS and Muhammad S, The use of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Henna) in the management of burn wound infection. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4: 934-937.

Dabhade A, Patel P, Patil U. Proteinaceous protease inhibitor from Lawsonia inermis: Purification, characterization and antibacterial activity. Natural Product Communications. 2013; 8(10):1467-70.

Avci H, Monticello R, Kotek R. Preparation of antibacterial PVA and PEO nanofibers containing Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) leaf extracts. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition. 2013;24(16): 1815-1830.

Aung KZ, Yee MM. Comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of watery leafy extracts from Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna), Oroxylum indium (L.) Vent (midnight horror) and Melastoma melabathricum L. (Malabar). International Journal of Current Research. 2019;11(03):4321-4327.

Vahabi S, Vala M, Gholami S, In vitro antibacterial effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lawsonia inermis L., Malva sylvestris, and Boswellia serrata on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Adv Biomed Res. 2019;8:22.

Mouhajir F, Hudson JB, Rejdali M, Towers GHN. Multiple antiviral activities of endemic medicinal plants used by berber peoples of Morocco. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2001;39(5):364-374.

Suthienkul O, Miyazaki O, Chulasiri M, Kositanont U, Oishi K. Retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity in Thai Herbs and Spices: Screening with Moloney Murine Leukemia Viral Enzyme, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1993; 24(4):751-5.

Hemalatha K, Natraj HN, Kiran AS. Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Lawsonia alba. Indian Journal of Natural Product. 1997;20(4):14-17.

Kumar M, Kaur P, Chandel M, Singh AP, Jain A, Kaur S, Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves against 2-acetylaminofluorene induced hepatic damage in male Wistar rats, BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(56):1-11.

Bhandarkar M, Khan A. Protective effect of Lawsoniaalba against carbontetrachloride induced hepatic damagein albino rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2003;41(1):85-87.

Anand KK, Singh B, Chand D, Chandan BK. An evaluation of Lawsonia alba extract as hepatoprotective agent. Planta Medica. 1992;58(1):22-25.

Selvanayaki R, Ananthi T. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Lawsonia Inermis against paracetamol induced rats. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2012;2(2):75-77.

Baskaran K, Suruthi B. Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic seed extract of Lawsonia inermis L. against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Sch. J. App. Med. Sci. 2016;4(7C):2488-2491.

Hasan KM, Yesmin S, Akhter SF, Paul S, Sarker S, Islam MA, Ibne Wahed MI, Khan MRI. Hepatoprotective potentiality of various fractions of ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves against chemical-induced hepatitis in rats. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2016; 1(12):17-22.

Hossain CM, Maji HS, Chakraborty P, Hepatoprotective activity of Lawsonia Inermis Linn, Warm Aqueous Extract in Carbon Tetrachloride¬ Induced Hepatic Injury in Wister Rats, Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2011;4(3):106¬109.

Darvina SS, Esakkimuthu S, Toppo E, Balakrishna K, Paulraj MG, Kumar PP, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabic NA, Hepatoprotective effect of lawsone on rifampicin-isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in in vitro and in vivo models. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2018;61:87-94.

Mohamed MA, Taj-Eldin IM, Mohammed AH, Hassan HM. Effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) leaves’ methanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016;5(1):22–26.

Eze GI, Akonoafua KA. Effects of ethanol leaf extract of Lawsonia inermis Linn. On carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in adult wistar rats. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2019;3(8): 252-260.

Rajeswari J, Rani S, Evaluation of Abortifacient Activity of root of Lawsonia inermis L. through in silico docking, Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2015;8(3):146-150.

Rani S, Manavalan R, Kilimozhi D. Anti-ovulatory and abortifacient potential of the ethanolic extract of henna roots in rats. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2009,1(1); 18-20.

Esteki R, Miraj S. The abortifacient effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. on BALB/c Mice, Electron Physician. 2016;8(6):2568–2575.

Chaudhary G, Goyal S, Poonia P. Lawsonia inermis Linnaeus: A phytopharmacological review International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research. 2010;2(2):91-98.

Bello SO, Bashar I, Muhammad BY, Onyeyili P. Acute toxicity and uterotonic activity of aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae), Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2010;1(3):790-798.

Aguwa CN. Toxic effects of the methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. roots. International J Crude Drug Res. 1987; 25:241-245.

Chandra Kalyan Reddy. Y, Sandya. L, Sandeep. D, Ruth Salomi. K, Nagarjuna. S, Padmanabha Reddy. Y., Evaluation of diuretic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves in rats. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 2011;1(3):28-33.

Hussein Kadhem MA. Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. in freund ҆s adjuvant induced arthritic Rats, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2016; 9(6):01-06.

Ramya A, Vijayakumar N, Renuka M. Antiarthritic effect of aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis.L – an invitro study, Int. J. Modn. Res. Revs., 2015, 3(8),744- 747.

Kore KJ, Shete RV, Desai NV. Anti-arthritic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2011; (3):217-224.

Rekik DM, Khedir SB, Daoud A, Moalla KK, Rebai T, Sahnoun Z. Wound healing effect of Lawsonia inermis L., Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2019;32(6):295-306.

Saliha AM, Kakamad FH, Salih RQ, Hussein DA, Hassan HA, Mekail TM, Abdul-Aziz JM, Aube H. Effect of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) on wound healing in Sprague-Dawley rats: A pilot study, Wound Medicine. 2017;18:41-42.

Djerrou Z, Mokhbi I, Hadef KS, Boutobza N, Bouzeguine S, Brighet I, Khelfa B. Burn wound healing effect and hair growth promoting activity of Lawsonia inermis L. and Honey in Oryctolagus cuniculus Rabbits, OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences. 2016;16(2):82-89.

Sakarkar DM, Sakarkar UM, Shrikhande NV, Vyas JV, Mandavgade S, Jaiswal SB, Purohit RN. Wound healing Properties of Henna Leaves. 2004;3(6):406-412.

Hamdi YP, Benazzouz M, Belkhiri H, Chari Z, Serakta M, Bensgni L. Healing effect of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) as exemplified by the third degree burns. Revue de Medecines et Pharmacopees Africaines. 1997;11-12:151-156.

Muhammad HS, Muhammad S. The use of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Henna) in the management of burn wound infection. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4: 934-937.

Nayak BS, Isitor G, Davis EM, Pillai GK, The evidence based wound healing activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn. Phytotherapy Research. 2007;21:827-831.

Towfik AI, Hamza AS, Munshi AK, The effect of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) on the wound healing of Local Arabian Horses, Journal of Kerbala University, 2015;13(1):78-91.

Rekik DM, Ben Khedir S, Daoud A, Ksouda Moalla K, Rebai T, Sahnoun Z. Wound healing effect of Lawsonia inermis L. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 2019;32 (6):295-306.

Daemi A, Farahpour MR, Oryan A, Karimzadeh S, Tajer E. Topical administration of hydroethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. (Henna) accelerates excisional wound healing process by reducing tissue inflammation and amplifying glucose uptake. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. 2019;35(1): 24-32.

Khémiri I, Essghaier Hédi B, Sadfi Zouaoui N, Ben Gdara N, Bitri L. The Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potential of Opuntia ficus indica L. inermis Extracted Oil from Tunisia. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2019;art. no. 9148782.

Mir NT, Saleem U, Anwar F, Bashir Ahmad B, Ullah I, Hira S, Ismail T, Ali T, Ayaz M, Lawsonia inermis L. Markedly Improves Cognitive Functions in Animal Models and Modulate Oxidative Stress Markers in the Brain, Medicina (Kaunas). 2019;55(5):192.

Rajesh V, Riju T, Venkatesh S, Babu G, Memory enhancing activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn. leaves against scopolamine induced memory impairment in Swiss albino mice, Orient Pharm Exp Med. 2017;17:127–142.

Uhegbu H, Memudu AE, Prophylactic role of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) leaf aqueous extract on cadmium-induced neurodegenerative rat model: a new drug therapy for Alzheimer’s disease. Abstract / IBRO Reports. 2019;7:S2–S51.

Dhouafli Z, Ben Jannet H, Mahjoub B, Leri M, Guillard J, Saidani Tounsi M, Stefani M, Hayouni EA.1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside: A new powerful antioxidant and inhibitor of Aβ42 aggregation isolated from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. Natural Product Research. 2019;33(10):1406-1414.

Mir NT, Saleem U, Anwar F, Ahmad B, Ullah I, Hira S, Ismail T, Ali T, Ayaz M. Lawsonia inermis L. markedly improves cognitive functions in animal models and modulate oxidative stress markers in the brain. Medicina (Lithuania). 2019;55(5): art. no. 192.

Pasandi Pour A, Farahbakhsh H. Lawsonia inermis L. leaves aqueous extract as a natural antioxidant and antibacterial product. Natural Product Research; 2019.

Goswami M, Kulshreshtha M, Rao CV, Yadav S, Yadav S, Anti-ulcer potential of Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves against gastric ulcers in rats, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2011;01(02):69-72.

Eggadi V, Lingampalli J, Kamma S, Bandaru SBS, Alavala RR, Kulandaivelu U, Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Lawsonia inermis L. and Murraya koenigii Seed Extract in Ethanol-induced Gastric Mucosal Damage in Rats. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;12:884-890.

Sonam Rajwar S, Khatri P. Antiulcer effects of polyherbal formulation of Lawsonia inermis L. and Azadirachta indica, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013, 2(1):88-102.

Bakhtaoui FM, Lakmichi H, Chait AR, Gadhi CA, In vivo Gastro-Protective Effects of Five Moroccan Medicinal Plants against Gastric Ulcer, American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 2014, 2(11), 1262-1276.

Goswami M, Kulshreshtha M, Rao CV, Yadav S, Yadav S. Antiulcer potential of Lawsonia inermis L. leaf. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2011; 10: 25–27.

Goli V, Macharla SP, Vijaya Bhasker, Gowrishankar, NL, Bhaskar J, Dhanalakshmi C, Antiulcer activity of leaf extract of Lawsonia inermis L. in albinorats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2011;4: 1436–1438.

Hekmatpou D, Ahmadian F, Eghbali M, Farsaei S. Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) as an inexpensive method to prevent decubitus ulcers in critical care units: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine. 2018;23.

Reddy J, Ranganathan TV, Hemachandran J, A Study on Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Potentials of Plants used in the Treatment of Vitiligo, European Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;1(3): 471-479.

Nikfallah M, Venugopal A. Antimicrobial and photometric assessment of Lawsonia inermis L. on oral bacteria and tooth colour. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2014;13(7):39-43.

Manekar SS, Charde MS, Evaluation of anti-asthmatic activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn. Aerial parts, The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2019;8(5):86-91.

Alem FZ, Bejaoui M, Villareal MO, Rhourri-Frih, B., Isoda, H. Elucidation of the effect of plumbagin on the metastatic potential of B16F10 murine melanoma cells via MAPK signalling pathway, Experimental Dermatology. 2020;29 (4):427-435.

Barani M, Mirzaei M, Torkzadeh-Mahani M, Nematollahi MH. Lawsone-loaded Niosome and its antitumor activity in MCF-7 breast Cancer cell line: a Nano-herbal treatment for Cancer. DARU, Journal of Pharmaceutical Scinces. 2018;e26(1):11-17.

Niazi M, Mehrabani M, Namazi MR, Salmanpour M, Heydari M, Karami MM, Parvizi MM, Fatemi I, Mehrbani M. Efficacy of a topical formulation of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) in contact dermatitis in patients using prosthesis: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2020;49.

Bhise K, Khan S, Mulla G. Topical anti-psoriatic nanoparticulate drug delivery system. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics. 2020;12 (2):76-85.

Bianchi S, Bernardi S, Continenza MA, Vincenti E, Antonouli S, Torge D, Macchiarelli G. Scanning electron microscopy approach for evaluation of hair dyed with Lawsonia inermis powder: In vitro study. International Journal of Morphology. 2020;38(1):96-100.

Tang Y, He W, Yang S, Liu L. Stabilisation and detoxification of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) extract for hair dye cosmetics by spray-drying encapsulation. Coloration Technology. 2019;135 (6):439-450.

Marzec A, Szadkowski B. Improved aging stability of ethylene-norbornene composites filled with lawsone-based hybrid pigment. Polymers. 2019;11(4), art. no. 723.

Tripathi RD, Srivastava HS, Dixit SN. A fungitoxic principle from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L. Experientia; 1978. DOI:10.1007/BF01921895.

Barupal T, Meena M, Sharma K. Corrigendum to “Inhibitory effects of leaf extract of Lawsonia inermis L. on Curvularia lunata and characterization of novel inhibitory compounds by GC–MS analysis” [Biotechnol. Rep. 23 (2019) e00335] (Biotechnology Reports (2019) 23, (S2215017X19300992), (1. Biotechnol. Reports; 2020.

DOI:10.1016/j.btre.2020.e00430.

Ali BH, Bashir AK, Tanira MOM. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) in rats. Pharmacology; 1995. DOI:10.1159/000139347.

Liou JR, El-Shazly M, Du YC, Tseng CN, Hwang TL, Chuang YL, et al. 1,5-Diphenylpent-3-en-1-ynes and methyl naphthalene carboxylates from Lawsonia inermis L. and their anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemistry; 2013. DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.11.010.

Yang JY, Lee HS. Antimicrobial activities of active component isolated from Lawsonia inermis L. leaves and structure-activity relationships of its analogues against food-borne bacteria. J. Food Sci. Technol; 2015.
DOI:10.1007/s13197-013-1245-y.

Krylova NV, Popov AM, Leonova GN, Artyukov AA, Maistrovskaya OS. Comparative study of antiviral activity of luteolin and 7,3’-disulfate luteolin. Antibiot. i Khimioterapiya; 2011.

Rajeswari J, Rani S. Evaluation of abortifacient activity of root of Lawsonia inermis L. through in silico docking. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res.; 2015.

Oda Y, Nakashima S, Kondo E, Nakamura S, Yano M, Kubota C, et al. Comparison of lawsone contents among Lawsonia inermis L. plant parts and neurite outgrowth accelerators from branches. J. Nat. Med. ; 2018.

DOI:10.1007/s11418-018-1221-y.

Dasgupta T., Rao, A. R., and Yadava, P. K. Modulatory effect of Henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis L.) on drug metabolising phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and chemically induced skin and forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. Mol. Cell Biochem. 2003.

Badoni Semwal R, Semwal DK, Combrinck S, Cartwright-Jones C, Viljoen A. (2014). Lawsonia inermis L. (henna): Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. J. Ethnopharmacol. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.042.

Iqbal K, Iqbal J, Staerk D, Kongstad KT. Characterization of antileishmanial compounds from Lawsonia inermis L. Leaves using semi-high resolution antileishmanial profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Front. Pharmacol; 2017.
DOI:10.3389/fphar.2017.00337.

Mikhaeil BR, Badria FA, Maatooq GT, Amer MMA. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory constituents of henna leaves. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch. - Sect. C J. Biosci; 2004.
DOI:10.1515/znc-2004-7-803.