Antidiabetic Effects of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth) (Asteraceae) Aqueous Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

Tchamadeu Marie Claire *

Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P. O. Box: 24157, Douala, Cameroon.

Emambo Patience

Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P. O. Box: 24157, Douala, Cameroon.

Bogning Zangueu Calvin

Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P. O. Box: 24157, Douala, Cameroon.

Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré

Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, P. O. Box: 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Dongmo Alain Bertrand

Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P. O. Box: 24157, Douala, Cameroon.

Choukem Siméon Pierre

Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Dschang, P. O. Box: 96, Dschang, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is an increasing disease empirically controlled with medicinal plants, whose many virtues are still unknown even by people who eat them as food. The study aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antidiabetic effects of Crassocephalum crepidioides aerial parts aqueous extract in normal and diabetic rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Animal Biology and Physiology (University of Douala), July - November 2016.

Experimental Procedure: Normal, glucose-overloaded normal, and Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats received the Crassocephalum crepidioides aqueous extract at various doses (13.5–300 mg/kg) in a single administration, and their fasting blood glucose was followed for over 5h. In prolonged treatment, Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received daily administration of the plant extract for 21 days and, blood glucose level, body weight, food, and water intake were followed weekly, while serum biochemical parameters were evaluated after 21 days of treatment. ¶ Type 1 diabetes was induced by an intravenous administration of a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard treatment for comparison with the plant extract.  

Results and Conclusion: The acute administration of Crassocephalum crepidioides extract did not reduce blood glucose levels of normal and diabetic rats, but significantly reduced (P<0.05 – P<0.01) the thirtieth-minute increase of glycemia in glucose-overloaded rats. Moreover, the 21-day treatment with the extract induced significant decreases (P<0.05 – P˂0.001) in serum glucose, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ALAT/ASAT levels or activities, and significant increases (P˂0.001) in serum HDL-cholesterol and body weight of diabetic rats. The ¶C. crepidioides aqueous extract has poten antidiabetic effects, justifying its traditional use for diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Streptozotocin, diabetes mellitus, Crassocephalum crepidioides, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, rats

How to Cite

Claire, T. M., Patience, E., Calvin, B. Z., Désiré, D. D. P., Bertrand, D. A., & Pierre, C. S. (2022). Antidiabetic Effects of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth) (Asteraceae) Aqueous Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 19(2), 43–55.


IDF (International Diabetes Federation). IDF Diabetes Atlas. 9th edition. 2019;176. Available:

Tsabang TN, Guedje NM, Nnanga N, Tamzé V, Biyiti L, Agbor T, Agbor G, Donfangsiteli N, Kinga J, Essamé OJL. Production Des Médicaments Tradition-nels Améliorés Au Cameroun: Cas D’un Hypoglycémiant Oral. Health Science and Diseases. 2012;12(3):1-6.

Chang CLT, Lin Y, Bartolome AP, Chen Y-C, Chiu S-C, Yang W-C. Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential application of selected plants and compounds. Review Article. Evidence-Based Complement. and Alt. Med. 2013;2013(1):1-33.

Koyeu TE, Mendi G, Tchamago FX, Valcin F and Collazo L. Ethnobotanic contribution of Cameroon: Anti- hypertensive plants inventory in the Nkoung-khi division, West region Cameroon. IJRDO-Journal of Biological Science. 2016;2(1):38-65.

Tchamadeu MC, Dzeufiet PDD, Nana P, Blaes N, Girolami JP, Tack I, Kamtchouing P and Dimo T. Antidiabetic effects of aqueous and dichloromethane/methanol stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacog Res. 2017;9:80-86.

Cronquist A. An Integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Colombia University Press, New York. 1981;1020-1021.

Burkill HM. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. Vol 3: 2nd Ed. Families J-L. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. 1995;160-164.

Denton OA. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore. [Internet] Record. From: PROTA4U. Grubben GJH, Denton OA (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands; 2004.


(Accessed 9th January 2021).

Tomimori K, Nakama S, Kimura R, Tamaki K, Ishikawa C, Mori N. Antitumor activity and macrophage nitric oxide producing action of medicinal herb, Crassocephalum crepidioides. BMC Compl Altern Med. 2012;12(78):1-11.

Adjatin A, Dansi A, Badoussi B, Loko KL, Dansi M, Azokpota P, Gbaguidi F, Ahissou H, Akoègninou A, Akpagana K, Sanni A. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies of Crassocephalum rubens (Juss. ex Jacq.) S. Moore and Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore consumed as vegetable in Benin. IJ Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2013;2(8):1-13.

Bogning ZC, Olounlade PA, Alowanou GG, Nguemfo EL, Dongmo AB, Azebaze AGB and Hounzangbe AS. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore on Haemonchus contortus. J Exp Integr Med. 2015;6(1):31-37.

Aniya Y, Koyama T, Miyagi C, Miyahira M, Inomata C, Kinoshita S, Ichiba T. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective actions of the medicinal herb, Crassocephalum crepidioides from the Okinawa Islands. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005; 28:19-23.

Mensah JK, Okoli RI, Ohaju-Obodo JO and Eifediyi K. Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. Afr J Biotech. 2008;7(14):2304-2309.

Arawande JO, Komolafe EA and Imokhuede B. Nutritional and phytochemical compositions of fireweed (Crassocephalum crepidioides). J Agr Techn. 2013;9(2):439-449.

Nguemfo EL, Mbock AJ, Bogning CZ, Fongang ALM, Kedi PBE, AB Dongmo. Acute and sub-acute toxicity assessment of aqueous leaves extract of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) in Wistar rats. J Complement Integr Med. 2020;18(2):295-302.

Zafar M, Naqvi SN. Effects of STZ-induced diabetes on the relative weights of kidney, liver and pancreas in albino rats: A comparative study. Int J Morph. 2010;28: 135-142.

Diehl K-H, Hull R, Morton D, Pfister R, Rabemampianina Y, Smith D, Vidal J-M, Cor van de Vortenbosch. A good practice guide to the administration of substances and removal of blood, including routes and volumes. J Appl Toxicol. 2001;21:15–23.

Flintoff K. Oh Rats! A guide to rat anesthesia for veterinary nurses and technicians. The New Zealand Veterinary Nurse. 2014;22-27.

Miller AL, Golledge HDR, Leach MC. The influence of isoflurane anesthesia on the rat Grimace Scale. Plos One. 2016;11(11): E0166652.

Seyed-Ali Ahmadi, Mohammad-Ali Boroumand, Katayoun Gohari-Moghaddam, Parvin Tajik, Seyed-Mohammad Dibaj. The impact of low serum triglyceride on LDL-cholesterol estimation. Arch Iran Med. 2008;11(3):318-321.

Dobiàšovà M, Frohlich J. The plasma parameter log (TG/HDL-C) as anatherogenic index: Correlation with lipoprotein particle size and esterification rate in apo-B-lipoprotein-depleted plasma (FER (HDL)). Clin Biochem. 2001;34:583-588.

Fröde TS and Medeiros YS. Animal models to test drugs with potential antidiabetic activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;115:173-183.

Kebieche M, Meraihi Z. Activité biochimique des extraits flavonoïdiques de la plante Ranunculus repens L. : Effet sur le diabète expérimental et l’hépatotoxicité induite par l’Epirubicine. Thèse de Doctorat, Département de Biochimie – Microbiologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Mentouri – Constantine, République Algérienne Démocratique et Populaire. 2009;1-143. pages. Available:

Cicero AF, Tartagni E. Antidiabetic properties of berberine: From cellular pharmacology to clinical effects. Hosp Pract. 2012;40(2):56-63

Huang T, Lu KN, Pai YP, Hsu C, Huang CJ. Role of GLP-1 in the hypoglycemic effects wild bitter gourd. Evidence-Based Compl Altern Med. 2013;2013 :13

(Article ID 625892).


Park S, Ahn IS, Kim JH, Lee MR, Kim JS, Kim HJ. Glyceollins, one of the phytoalexins derived from soybeans under fungal stress, enhance insulin sensitivity and exert insulinotropic actions. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58 (3):1551-1557.

Nazrul MI, Hossein AKMN, Taher MDA, Nyeem MAB. Incretins mimetic effects of herbal drugs for management of diabetes mellitus: A research-based approach. Res Pharm Health Sci. 2017;3(1):246-248.

Salehi M, Aulinger B, D’alessio DA. Effect of glycemia on plasma incretins and the incretin effect during oral glucose tolerance test. Diabetes. 2012; 61:2728-2733.

Bayle Morgane. Potentiel antidiabetique de métabolites de polyphénols : les urolithines. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier. 2017;1-198. France. NNT: 2017MONTT018.


Baroni S, Suzuki-Kemmelmeier F, Caparroz-Assef SM, Nakamura Cuman RK, Bersani-Amado CA. Effect of crude extracts of leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on glycemia in diabetic rats. Brazil. J Pharm Sci. 2008; 44(3):521-530.

Li WL, Zheng HC, Bukuru J, De Kimpeb N. Natural medicines used in the traditional Chinese medical system for therapy of diabetes mellitus. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92:1-21.

Sarkhail P, Rahmanipour S, Fadyevatan S, Mohammadirad A, Dehghan G, Amin G, Shafiee A and Abdollahi M. Antidiabetic effect of Phlomis anisodonta: Effects on hepatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes. Pharmacog Res. 2007;56:261-266.

Rajiv G, Sasikumar P. Antidiabetic effect of Merremia emarginata Burm. F. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(4):281-286.

Hassan A-M, Fahaid A-H. Hypoglycemic, hepato-renal and antixidant potential effects of Chamomile Recutita flowers ethanolic extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Am J Pharm. 2014;9(1):1-12.

Zhao HL, Harding SV, Marinangeli CP, Kim YS, Jones PJ. Hypocholesterolemic and anti‐obesity effects of saponins from Platycodon grandiflorum in hamsters fed atherogenic diets. J Foods Sci. 2008; 37(8):195-200.

Bahar E, Siddika MS, Nath B, Yoon H. Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo antihyper- lipidemic activities of methanol extract of aerial part of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Asteraceae) Benth S. Moore. Trop Pharm Res. 2016;15:481- 488.