The Relationship of Gestational Age on the Incidence of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

Wiradi Suryanegara *

Community Medicine Department, Medical Faculty, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Gorga I. V. W. Udjung

Obstetrics and Gynecology Division, Medical Faculty, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Pregnancy is a risk factor for vulvovaginitis. Vulvovaginitis is an infection of the vaginal and vulvar mucosa, most often caused by bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (CVV), and trichomoniasis (TR), even in some cases, a mixed infection. CVV is the second most common infection after BV that causes vulvovaginitis. Colonization of Candida sp. in the vagina is at least 20% in non-pregnant women but increases to 30% in pregnant women and increases in the third trimester to 40%, so the increasing gestational age, the higher the risk of CVV. This study aims to determine the relationship between gestational age and the incidence of CVV. This research method is a cross-sectional analytic design, using primary data from anamnesis and vaginal swab examinations on 50 samples of pregnant women at the Jatibening Health Center UPTD, 34 samples (68%) tested positive, and 16 samples (32%) tested negative for vulvovaginitis. CVV was found most often in the third trimester of pregnancy by 50%. The Chi-Square regression test was performed where the p-value = 0.042 (significant). Gestational age affects the incidence of CVV.

Keywords: Gestational age, vulvovaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis


How to Cite

Suryanegara, W., & Udjung, G. I. V. W. (2022). The Relationship of Gestational Age on the Incidence of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, 20(2), 37–48. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2022/v20i2414

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Chen Y, Bruning E, Rubino J, Eder SE. Role of female intimate hygiene in vulvovaginal health: Global hygiene practices and product usage. Women's Health. 2017;13(3):58-67.

Alagouri SM, Mohammad M. prevalence and risk factors of bactieral vaginosis, trichomoniasis, candidiasis and chlamydial infections for women of child bearing age in benghazi libya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Benghazi).

Ahmad A, Khan AU. Prevalence of candida species and potential risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis in Aligarh, India. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2009;144(1):68-71.

Ilkit M, Guzel AB. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis: A mycological perspective. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2011;37(3):250-61.

Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal candidosis. The Lancet. 2007;369(9577):1961-71.

Mendling W, Brasch J. Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the german society for gynecology and obstetrics, the working group for infections and infectimmunology in gynecology and obstetrics, the german society of dermatology, the board of german dermatologists and the german speaking mycological society. Mycoses. 2012;55:1-3.

Sherrard J, Donders G, White D, Jensen JS. European (IUSTI/WHO) guideline on the management of vaginal discharge. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 2011;22(8):421-9.

Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Rouse DJ, Spong CY. Fetal imaging. Williams Obstetrics. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 2010: 349-71.

Sobel JD. Pathogenesis of candida vulvovaginitis. Current Topics In Medical Mycology. 1989:86-108.

Vicariotto F, Del Piano M, Mogna L, Mogna G. Effectiveness of the association of 2 probiotic strains formulated in a slow release vaginal product, in women affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. 2012;46:S73-80.

Skinner CE. The yeast-like fungi: Candida and brettanomyces. Bacteriological Reviews. 1947;11(4):227-74.

Sjam KR. Kolonisasi Candida dalam rongga mulut. Majalah Kedokteran UKI. 2012;28(1):39-47.

Sudipa PH, Gelgel KT. International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2022;11(3): 378-83.

Amelia SP. Hubungan kadar gula darah dengan kandidiasis vagina pada akseptor kontrasepsi hormonal.

Van Wyk DA. Diversity and characteristics of yeasts in water sources of the North West Province (Doctoral dissertation, North-West University).

Ghannoum MA, Abu-Elteen KH. Pathogenicity determinants of Candida. Mycoses. 1990;33(6):265-82.

Monalisa B, dan Amiruddin. Clinical aspects fluor albus of female and treatment. IJDV. 2012;1(1):19-29.

Parveen N, Munir AA, Din I, Majeed R. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan: JCPSP. 2008;18(3):154-7.

Lamichhane P, Joshi DR, Subedi YP, Thapa R, Acharya GP, Lamsal A, Upadhaya S. Study on types of vaginitis and association between bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infection in pregnant women. IJBAR. 2014;5(06):305-7.

Aring BJ, Mankodi PJ, Jasani JH. Incidence of vaginal candidiasis in leucorrhoea in women attending in OPD of gynecology and obstetrics department. International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research. 2012;3(12):867-9.

Samuel O, Ifeanyi O, Ugochukwu O. Prevalence of candida species among vaginitis symptomatic pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic of Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Awka, Nigeria. Bioengineering and Bioscience. 2015;3(2):23-7.

Kanagal DV, Vineeth VK, Kundapur R, Shetty H, Rajesh A. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy among coastal south Indian women. J Womens Health, Issues Care. 2014;3(6):2.

Maleeha A, Rubeena H, Sadia I. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnancy.

Castellano Filho DS, Diniz CG, Silva VL. Bacterial vaginosis: Clinical, epidemiologic and microbiological features. HU Revista. 2010;36(3).