Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research 2021-11-27T14:48:10+00:00 Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research (ISSN: 2456-6276)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JOCAMR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in the areas of Complementary, Alternative and Integrative medical research. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Sub-Chronic Administration of Tramadol, Caffeinated Drink and Alcohol Precipitated Dysfunctions in Health Indices of Male Wistar Rats 2021-10-09T02:52:37+00:00 E. B. Oyewo J. B. Oso J. O. Fatoki A. L. Adedeji G. E. Adeleke <p>Tramadol is a popular drug of abuse among adolescent and young adults in many developing African countries due to the opioid agonist properties. We investigated the health implications of the sub-chronic concurrent abuse of tramadol, caffeinated drink and alcohol in adult male Wistar rats. Tramadol was administered at 40 and 20 mg/kg BW respectively, caffeinated drink at 10 ml/kg BW and alcohol at 2 ml/kg BW. The rats were handled such that: group A received distilled water; groups B and C received tramadol and distilled water; groups D and E received tramadol and caffeinated drink; groups F and Greceived tramadol and alcohol; and groups H and I received caffeinated drink and alcohol respectively. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),protein carbonyl (PC),protein thiol (PT), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDLC), and activities of paraoxonase (PON-1) and acetylcholine esterase (ACE) were determined. Histo-pathological analysis was performed on the liver, kidney, brain and small intestine. The concentrations of blood nitric oxide, GSH and MDA increased (p&lt;0.05) inconsistently with no alterationsin PC (p&gt;0.05). Inconsistent alterations were obtained in blood PON-1 activities across the groups. Decreases were recorded in the GSH and TPT in the liver and brain with increases in PC and MDA (p&lt;0.05). Inconsistent increases were obtained in the concentrations ox-LDLC, VCAM-1, IL-1β and MCP-1, and ACE activities. Consistent alterations were observed in the photomicrographs of the brain, kidney, intestine and liver of rats co-administered 40 mg/kg BW of tramadol withcaffeinated drink or alcohol. The overall findings indicated that the use of tramadol singly at 40 mg/kg BW or co-administered at both doses with caffeinated drink and alcohol precipitated various dysfunctions to health that could reduce the quality of life.</p> 2021-10-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Sarcocephalus latifolius Afzel. Ex R.Br. Leaf Powder on the Kidney Function of Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Rats 2021-10-29T02:51:50+00:00 Olubunmi Simeon Oyekunle Adewale, Adetutu Adijat Funke Ogundola <p>This study assessed the effects of <em>Sarcocephalus latifolius </em>Afzel. Ex R.Br.<strong> l</strong>eaf powder on the kidney function of alloxan-induced diabetes rats.</p> <p>Forty-five healthy female albino rats were used in the experiment and assigned into 9 different groups. Diabetes was induced intravenously with 150 mg/kg body weight alloxan. Normal and diabetic rats were administered orally with 300, 600, 750mg/kg/ b.w of<em> S. latifolius</em>. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and blood with the kidney were harvested for biochemical and histological studies.</p> <p>In our result, significant (p&lt;0.05) increase was observed in creatinine concentration of diabetic rats, which was significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased upon administration of 300 and 750 mg/kg body weight of <em>Sarcocephalus latifolius</em> leaf powder. No significant (p&gt;0.05) difference was observed in the urea concentration of all the groups. Significant (p&lt;0.05) difference in sodium concentration was only observed between the diabetic untreated and metformin treated groups whereas, potassium concentration varied significantly (p&lt;0.05) across the groups. Certain degenerative changes in the kidney of normal and diabetic rats treated and untreated with <em>S. latifolius</em> leaf powder were observed but at a lower degree in the group treated with the 300 mg/kg/bw of the leaf powder. The result of this study showed the possible renal toxicity potential of the plant at high dose.</p> 2021-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative In vitro Antibacterial Properties of Methanol Extracts and Fractions of Myristica fragrans Seed and Thymus vulgaris Leaf 2021-11-01T04:23:04+00:00 Romanus A. Umoh Affiong C. Essien Imoh I. Johnny Nsima A. Andy Anwanabasi E. Udoh Omodot T. Umoh <p>The aim of this work was to compare the antibacterial properties of methanol extracts and fractions of <em>Myristica fragrans</em> seed and <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> leaf on the gram positive and negative bacteria.&nbsp; The<em> Myristica fragrans</em> seeds were crushed, defatted and air-dried. The defatted seed and leaf powders were separately macerated in absolute methanol for 72 hours. The methanol extracts and fractions were reconstituted at different concentrations of 100mg/mL, 80mg/mL, 60mg/mL, 40mg/mL and 20mg/mL for the antibacterial assay by agar diffusion method with activated cultured <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> , incubated at 37<sup>o</sup>C for 24 hours . The results showed that these plants possess antibacterial activity on the basis of their zones of inhibition. Methanol extract of <em>M</em>. <em>fragrans</em> had a higher activity of 8-19mm on <em>S</em>. <em>aureus</em> than <em>E. coli</em> with 5-14mm range respectively. Ethylacetate fraction had the highest activity with 9-25mm on <em>S. aureus</em>, while chloroform fraction had the highest activity on <em>E. coli</em> with 8-18mm.&nbsp; For <em>T. vulgaris</em>, the methanol extract had a higher activity of 6-18mm on <em>E. coli</em> than <em>S. aureus </em>of 4-17mm and for the fractions, n-hexane fraction had the highest activity of 7-20mm on <em>S. aureus</em> <em>, </em>while aqueous fraction had the highest activity of 5-18mm on <em>E. coli</em>, compared with zones of inhibition of 18mm against <em>S. aureus</em>&nbsp; and 28mm against <em>E. coli </em>&nbsp;for gentamycin of 2mg/mL which was the reference drug. Methanol extracts and fractions of <em>M. fragrans</em> seed and <em>T. vulgaris</em> leaf showed excellent activities on the gram positive and gram negative bacteria but the <em>M. fragrans </em>had a better activity than <em>T. vulgaris</em>.</p> 2021-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon on Ted in Subjects with Subacute Lateral Epicondylitis 2021-11-03T17:07:21+00:00 Radhika Chintamani <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Lateral Epicondylitis is a overuse syndrome usually seen in people who &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;perform repeated extension and supination movement of elbow against resistance. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Tissue Extensibility Dysfunction (TED) is a term which suggests apparent &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tightness of the muscle which has occurred due to spasm, lactic acid accumulation, inflammation or over use.</p> <p><strong>Need of The Study:</strong> Many Studies involving manual therapy with different techniques have already demonstrated manual therapy is effective in reducing pain in subjects with lateral epicondylitis. Very few studies have focused on Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon (PRP) which is established to reduce pain and improving range of motion. Also, there is dirth in literature related to tissue extensibility dysfunction occurring in subacute variant of tennis elbow and the effect of PRP on TED. Hence this study is been undertaken.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 50 sample size was randomized into 25 per group. Group A consisted of Conventional therapy and Group B consisted of Conventional therapy with Mulligan’s PRP. Outcome measures were noted pre therapy and on the 7th day that is post therapy and results were tabulated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results declare that pain (0.05 and 0.001), grip strength (0.001, 0.001) and disability (0.001, 0.001) showed significant improvement in the scores in both the group whereas muscle stiffness (0.341 and 0.001) significantly improved only in Group B.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon technique can be used to treat Subacute tennis elbow effectively and is known to reduce the muscle stiffness along with pain and disability and improving strength.</p> 2021-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mitigation of Lead Neurotoxicity by Aqueous Fruit Extract of Adansonia digitata in Adult Wistar Rats 2021-11-16T04:45:55+00:00 Eduitem S. Otong Sunday A. Musa Barnabas Danborno Sohnap J. Sambo <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The current study seeks to explore the neuroprotective benefits of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> against lead induced memory impairment, neurotransmitter/AChE activity imbalance, oxidative stress as well as brain damage.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty male adult rats weighing 160g-200g were divided randomly into six groups (I-V1) consisting of five (5) rats in each group. Group I served as control and were administered with distilled water (1 ml/kg) only while groups II -VI were treatment groups. Group II were administered 250 mg/kg of <em>Adansonia digitata</em>; group III were administered 30 mg/kg of lead; Group IV were administered 250 mg/kg of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group V were administered 500 mg/kg of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group VI were administered 30 mg/kg of lead plus 10 mg/kg of succimer. All administrations were carried out through oral gavage for a period of 28 days.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Lead administration caused memory impairment, decreased dopamine concentration and AChE activity in brain, induced oxidative stress resulting in brain damage.&nbsp; <em>Adansonia digitata</em> treatment significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;.001) attenuated memory impairment, modulated dopamine concentration and AChE activity, prevented oxidative stress and ameliorated histopathological changes in the brain of Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The result showed that<em> Adansonia digitata</em> ameliorates lead-induced memory impairment in Wistar rats by improving memory index, controlling dopamine concentration and AChE activity, preventing oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration.</p> 2021-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Finding a Balance between Mood and Energy Level in a Rotational Work System 2021-11-22T14:21:21+00:00 Uloaku Okeke Eucharia Oluchi Nwaichi Princewill Chukwuemeka Stanley <p>The impact of rotational work system on the mood and energy level among Oil and Gas workers was evaluated. The design was set in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria and questionnaire, cohort session and interviews were the instruments deployed. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected workers from international Oil and Gas Companies located in Port Harcourt, Questions that bothered on the effect of rotational work on the mood and energy level of Oil and Gas workers were posed. It was observed that 38.8% and 41.2% agree and strongly agree that their mood is affected on site while 13.8% remained neutral. Interestingly, over 80% of Oil and Gas workers agreed to feeling of anxiety from the interview and cohort sessions. 40% and 43.8% of workers agree and strongly agree respectively that rotational work does affect their energy on site. Obtained median of 4 means that over 50% of the response belongs to the category that agree strongly agree while a mode of 5 has more responses in the category of strongly agree which is in agreement with results from the percentage frequency. Rotational workers were affected by absence from family and loved ones, social isolation and constant reminder of hazard and working in hazardous environment with work pressures and unrealistic deadlines. These cause depression and general dissatisfaction with life. Results from interviews revealed neglect of mental wellness of workers. The Oil and Gas workers are willing to face these hazards because of the economic gains arising from their work, however provision of recreational amenities and making policies that bring the Oil and Gas workers back home every seven days forbidding the schedule of trainings and workshops during time off duty will make rotational work more bearable.</p> 2021-11-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical Constituents and Comparative Antioxidative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants 2021-11-22T15:51:25+00:00 Abiodun Olusoji Owoade Adewale Adetutu Olufemi Ogundeji Ogundipe Akinade William Owoade <p>This study was carried out to compare the in-vitro antioxidant potentials, antidiabetic and phytochemical constituents of methanolic leaf extracts of <em>Anthocleista</em><em> djalonensis, Chrysophyllum albidium, Bauhinia thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, </em>and<em> Cola nitida</em>. The results of this study show that all the plant extracts have strong antioxidant potentials against various radicals. The extracts scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner and scavenged nitric oxide radicals with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 152.39, 186.36, 213.40, 303.58 and 355.53 µg/ml for <em>C. albidium, D. oliveri, C. nitida, A. djalonensis and B. thonningii,</em> respectively. All the extracts also inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation and α-amylase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, while the degree of ferric reducing power by the extracts was of the order <em>C. albidium &gt; D. oliveri &gt; B. thonningii &gt; C. nitida &gt; A. djalonensis</em>. Phytochemical and gas chromatography analyses carried out on the extracts revealed the presence of known chemical constituents. The amounts of total phenolics in <em>A. djalonensis, C. albidium, B. thonningii, D. oliveri, </em>and<em> C. nitida</em> were 68.39 mg/g, 95.11 mg/g, 61.03 mg/g, 103.74 mg/g, and 63.31 mg/g, respectively, in gallic acid equivalents. In all cell-free assays, <em>C. albidium </em>and<em> D. oliveri</em><em>,</em> the two plants with higher amounts of phenolic compounds, were found to be more effective as antioxidants than other plant extracts with lower phenolic contents under the same experimental conditions. Therefore, the effectiveness of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of these plant extracts may be related to their phenolic content. The presence of phenolics and various antioxidant compounds in the plants may explain the strong pharmacological potentials of these plants.</p> 2021-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical Characterization, Hepatoprotective Activity on Alcohol-Induced Toxicity of the Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) in Wistar Rats 2021-11-27T14:48:10+00:00 Ameaka Fatima Nkempu Tembe Estella Tchadji Mayoudom Vanessa Edwige Bayaga Herve Dobgima John Fonmboh Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy Njinkio Borgia Nono Tabi Yves Omgba Ngameni Bathelemy Fokunang Charles <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Liver or hepatic disease refers to different conditions that affect the liver. Chronic alcohol consumption is one of the most frequent causes of liver disease and accounts for about 55% of liver cirrhosis deaths recorded in Cameroon in 2020. Standard accessible treatments focus on end-stage liver disease with safety and efficacy obstacles. We have a research gap in Cameroon to understand the alternative use of natural products as treatment with a long traditional history of safe use. <em>Curcuma longa</em> has long been a source of traditional and modern medicine. It is commonly used in Cameroon as a spice and herbal product with some level of activity against various forms of liver disease.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To phytochemically screen for bioactive metabolites and evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of <em>Curcuma longa</em>on alcohol-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extract obtainedfrom maceration of plant rhizomes. Three doses (125, 250 and 500mg/Kg) of the plant extract and the reference (Silymarin 50mg/Kg) were administered daily (p.o) to rats 30 min before administration of 40% alcohol (2mL/100g p.o) for 21 days. Biochemical parameters such as ALAT, ASAT, GGT, Bilirubin and Lipid profile were quantified and histological studies of the liverwas carried out using standard procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of <em>C. longa </em>revealed polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins, quinones, saponins and phlobatanins. The plant showed hepatoprotective activity by decreasing liver toxicity markers such as ASAT, ALAT, GGT and Bilirubin. Histology revealed dose-dependent protection with 500 mg/Kg showing the most cellular integrity, no central vein occlusion and minimal fibrosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study indicated the presence of polyphenols like flavonoids and tannins in the aqueous extract of <em>C. longa</em>. The presence of these secondary metabolites in the studied extract justifies its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by its hepatoprotective effects on alcohol-induced toxicity. This was clearly shown by biochemical and histological parameters. More sensitive and specific methods are required to test for these secondary metabolites in serum.</p> 2021-11-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Role of Jundi-Shapur in Streamlining of ILM-E-TIBB (Medicine) 2021-10-12T01:47:54+00:00 Younis I. Munshi Masihuzzaman Ansari <p>People have always felt the need to seek the knowledge from time immemorial. Be it the knowledge of religion or science or philosophy or astronomy. The knowledge of medicine was confined to cultures till 4<sup>th</sup> century AD. Every subcontinent and every civilization was having its own traditions to treat the diseases, e.g. Ayurved in India, Egyptian traditional medicine in Egypt, Chinese traditional medicine in China, Iranian Traditional medicine in Iran etc etc.</p> <p>It was during the 5<sup>th</sup> century AD when Roman Empire cracked down on its seminaries and the intellectuals were forced to leave the country. Those intellectuals were given refuge by Persian Empire where in a city was established with ultimate autonomy under Khusro, Jundi-Shapur became a prosperous metropolis, refuge, and melting pot for intellectuals from many regions. Shapur II (309-379 A.D.) is credited for conceiving and establishing the nucleus of the university in the latter part of the fourth century. The closing of the Athenian school by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (AD 539) also drove many leaned Greek physicians to Jundi-Shapur. This was the start of the integration of different traditional medicine of different civilizations. This formed the basis of what we see today as modern medicine. In this way <em>JundiShapur</em> has important role in the development of Medical knowledge and it remained in the leading role until 9<sup>th</sup> Century AD.</p> 2021-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional Management Approach for Possible Prevention of COVID-19 Infection and Transmission in Sub-Saharan and Biodiversity Endowed Countries 2021-11-16T04:46:28+00:00 Dobgima John Fonmboh Tembe Estella Fokunang Ngwasiri Pride Ndasi Thierry N. Noumo Njinkio Nono Borgia Lovet Bengyella Fokunang Edrice Ajabi Eselle Samelle Bengyella Louis Tita Kaba Nubia Kristen Ejoh Richard Aba A. Tita Margarete Fokunang Charles Ntugwen <p>The causative etiology of the viral pneumonia outbreak in the Wuhan province of China of December 2019 initially identified as “novel-Coronavirus-2019” and today called “Corona Virus Disease-2019 has been identified as “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Tireless efforts have therefore been invested to elaborate a treatment and/ or vaccine though with much controversy due to the lack of proper mastery of the structure, mode of action, mutation, recombination and transmission mechanism of the virus. Numerous public health measures have thus been imposed to slow down the rate of invasion and/or transmission (regular hand washing, face mask wearing, quarantine as well as method of diagnosis and symptomatic treatment) and now a convinent and acceptable treatment protocol and/ or vaccine. With the difficulties encountered in the development of an effective and efficient control and / or preventive towards the virus even in the western world, countries in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those in the tropics like Cameroon will endure sigficant consequences due to limited funds, technology, equipment and experts. It is therefore imperative to exploit other possibilities as the recombination rate and mutation possibilities within the genome of SARS-CoV-2 is indicative that, the 2019 outbreak was just a tip of the iceberg as more virulent variants beyond Delta variants, are still to emerge. One of such suitable and affordable possibilities is to nutritionally fortify and prepared the body to fight against infection. Zinc, Copper and Sellenium are essential micronutrients with demonstrated viral chelating activities found in selected commond foods which in adequate amounts will strengthen the immune system and tonify the body energy. A non-exhaustive list of common foods rich in the indicated micronutrients as well as those endowed with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties have been established from an extensive literature search in order to emphasize on the regular consumption.</p> 2021-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##