Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research 2021-04-16T06:34:51+00:00 Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research (ISSN: 2456-6276)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JOCAMR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in the areas of Complementary, Alternative and Integrative medical research. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Antimalarial Activity of Ethanol Extract of Mucuna pruriens Leaves on Nk65 Chloroquine Sensitive Strain of Plasmodium berghei 2021-04-16T06:34:51+00:00 O. E. Ezim O. V. Alagbe F. M. Idih <p><em>Mucuna pruriens </em>leaves are used in some part of Nigeria for the treatment of malaria and anemia. With an estimated 3.3 billion people in 97 countries and territories at risk of being infected with malaria according to the WHO, researching into new chemotherapeutic agent against this disease is indeed necessary. This study was designed to evaluate the antimalarial effect of ethanol extract of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> leaves on NK65 chloroquine sensitive strain of <em>plasmodium berghei</em> in mice. The bioactive compounds in the extract were identified using GC-MS. The experimental animals were divided into 6 groups: negative control, normal control, groups treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg), Artemeter/Lumefantrine-ACT (20 mg/120 mg/kg), 500 mg/kg of <em>M</em>. pruriens, 1000 mg/kg of <em>M</em>. pruriens and 2000 mg/kg of <em>M</em>. pruriens respectively. Parasite inoculation was done by intraperitoneal injection of 0.2ml of the inoculum (1×10<sup>7</sup> infected erythrocytes). The GCMS result revealed the extract contains n-hexadeconoic acid, a compound known to possess antimalarial properties. The study revealed that the administrations <em>M. pruriens </em>leaves extracts at suitable doses reduced the parasite load and were able to maintain the PCV at a normal range with a stabilising effect on body weight.</p> 2021-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In vitro and In vivo Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Clutia abyssinica in Mice Model 2021-04-16T06:34:51+00:00 Samson Sahile Salile Teferra Abula <p><strong>Background:</strong> Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people of all ages worldwide. In the search of safe and effective antiepileptics traditional treatment practices are one area of research to obtain novel molecules. Research is also needed to validate and standardize the traditional claim. <em>Clutia abyssinica </em>leaves were one of the medicinal plants claimed for use against epilepsy and evil eye and other diseases in different parts of Ethiopia. But there was no scientific research evidence for the claimed use of the plant. Therefore this work was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Clutia abyssinica </em>leaves.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The dry residue of the plant extract was used for the test. <em>In vitro</em> 0Mg2+ mice model at dose 0.7 mg/kg of extract, diazepam (3μM) and untreated brain slice groups were used to compare the presence of seizure like event (SLE). <em>In vivo</em> pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model with 85 mg/kg subcutaneously was used to compare the seizure onset time with two extract doses and diazepam 5 mg/kg. The data was presented with mean± standard error. In maximum electric shock (MES) model 54 mA was passed for 0.2 second transauricularly in mice. The mean time of hind limb extension was recorded for doses 400 mg/kg and 800mg/kg of the extract and 10 mg/kg phenytoin. The means were compared for statistical significance using one way ANOVA post hoc LSD whereas proportions were compared using Fishers exact test with P-value &lt; .05.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>In vitro</em> anticonvulsant tests <em>C. abyssinica </em>extract effect was not statistically significant compared to negative control (P&gt;0.05).A positive control using the known anticonvulsant diazepam (3μM), showed significant anticonvulsant activity (P&lt;0.05). The <em>in vivo </em>PTZ test showed no statistically significant effect in plant extract at all dose levels (P&gt;0.05). In the <em>in vivo </em>MES test the extract of <em>Clutia abyssinica</em> both low and higher dose didn't show statistically significant effect (P&gt;0.05) compared with the negative control. But the extract improved survival (p&lt;0.05). The qualitative secondary metabolite test evidenced the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavanoids, phenols, saponins, sterols and terpeoids in <em>Clutia abyssinica </em>extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The hydroalcoholic crude extract result of the <em>C. abyssinica</em> as anticonvulsant is weak based on the models used in this study. For most of the local preparation are mixes of different plants it may have synergistic action with other plants. Or it may have action with other models of chronic epilepsy.</p> 2021-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Self-care Knowledge on Diabetes and Long-term Complications among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Guyana 2021-04-16T06:34:50+00:00 Cecil Boston Rajini Kurup Sibte Hadi Emanuel Cummings Adrian O'hara <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of knowledge regarding self-care and awareness as well as long-term complications among type 2 diabetic patients in Guyana.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation and West Demerara Regional Hospital Guyana during the period September 2020 and December 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who met the inclusion criteria were recruited via advertisement and telephone interviews. The data revealed about 66.5% of participants were deemed to have good knowledge with men accounting for the majority. Diabetic foot and hypertension were commonly seen among participants with complications. Significant association was noted with barrier level of patients with the level of education (p=0.001), ethnicity (0.006) and insurance plan (0.03). Adherence to self-care showed statistically significant association with patient’s level of education (p&lt;0.0001), marital status (0.02), employment status (p&lt;0.0001), insurance plan (0.01) and persons living with multiple persons in the household (p&lt;0.0001). Statistically, significant association was also noted among patient’s self-health feeling with level of education (0.004), employment status (p&lt;0.0001), insurance plan (0.01) and persons living with multiple persons in the household (p&lt;0.0001). There was no statistical difference between the hospital clinics neither between the groups of participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, the study highlighted gaps in the knowledge of the disease and patient care. Therefore, efforts should be made to enhance patient care by scheduling regular educational sessions and having services such as counselling available to patients.</p> 2021-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical and Prognostic Characteristics of "Disease-specific" Autoantibodies in Systemic Scleroderma 2021-04-16T06:34:49+00:00 Aripova Nozima Abrarovna Djurayeva Elnora Rustamovna Nabiyeva Dildora Abdumalikovna Ganiyeva Nafisa Abrarovna <p>Systemic sclerosis&nbsp;(SSc) is a&nbsp;connective tissue disease&nbsp;of autoimmune nature characterized by the triad of&nbsp;vascular injury, autoimmunity (cellular and humoral) and tissue fibrosis. Autoantibodies do not seem to be simply epiphenomena, but are involved in disease pathogenesis. It is believed that the SSc-specific autoantibodies are responsible both for amplifying immune response and targeting cell types that are relevant in the&nbsp;pathophysiology&nbsp;of SSc. In the current understanding of the pathogenesis of SSc, the leading role is assigned to the vascular lesion of the microvasculature arising against the background of immunity dysregulation and the intensification of fibrosis processes associated with the action of various growth factors and cytokines. In SSc, as in other systemic autoimmune diseases, chronic B-lymphocytic activation is observed, which results in a loss of tolerance to self antigens. Circulation of a wide range of autoantibodies (antibodies) is a characteristic feature of SSc. It is possible that autoantigens in SSc are released during ischemia-reperfusion tissue damage that occurs against the background of vasospastic vascular reactions characteristic of this disease. In the process of B-cell presentation of autoantigens through costimulatory surface molecules, activation of T-lymphocytes occurs, followed by clonal expansion of T-cell subpopulations, which are autoreactive towards endothelium and fibroblasts. It is believed that B cells play an important role in the initial mechanisms of fibrosis in SSc, and chronic activation of B cells is directly related to the development of sclerodermic fibrosis through the production of antibodies and fibrogenic cytokines. Despite many years of efforts, a complete concept explaining the role of antibodies in the pathogenesis of SSc has not yet been created. At the same time, a huge amount of information has been accumulated on the diagnostic and prognostic significance of circulating antibodies, the importance of which for the supervision of the patient can hardly be overestimated.</p> 2021-04-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##