Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research (ISSN: 2456-6276)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JOCAMR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in the areas of Complementary, Alternative and Integrative medical research. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research 2456-6276 Sub-Chronic Administration of Tramadol, Caffeinated Drink and Alcohol Precipitated Dysfunctions in Health Indices of Male Wistar Rats <p>Tramadol is a popular drug of abuse among adolescent and young adults in many developing African countries due to the opioid agonist properties. We investigated the health implications of the sub-chronic concurrent abuse of tramadol, caffeinated drink and alcohol in adult male Wistar rats. Tramadol was administered at 40 and 20 mg/kg BW respectively, caffeinated drink at 10 ml/kg BW and alcohol at 2 ml/kg BW. The rats were handled such that: group A received distilled water; groups B and C received tramadol and distilled water; groups D and E received tramadol and caffeinated drink; groups F and Greceived tramadol and alcohol; and groups H and I received caffeinated drink and alcohol respectively. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),protein carbonyl (PC),protein thiol (PT), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDLC), and activities of paraoxonase (PON-1) and acetylcholine esterase (ACE) were determined. Histo-pathological analysis was performed on the liver, kidney, brain and small intestine. The concentrations of blood nitric oxide, GSH and MDA increased (p&lt;0.05) inconsistently with no alterationsin PC (p&gt;0.05). Inconsistent alterations were obtained in blood PON-1 activities across the groups. Decreases were recorded in the GSH and TPT in the liver and brain with increases in PC and MDA (p&lt;0.05). Inconsistent increases were obtained in the concentrations ox-LDLC, VCAM-1, IL-1β and MCP-1, and ACE activities. Consistent alterations were observed in the photomicrographs of the brain, kidney, intestine and liver of rats co-administered 40 mg/kg BW of tramadol withcaffeinated drink or alcohol. The overall findings indicated that the use of tramadol singly at 40 mg/kg BW or co-administered at both doses with caffeinated drink and alcohol precipitated various dysfunctions to health that could reduce the quality of life.</p> E. B. Oyewo J. B. Oso J. O. Fatoki A. L. Adedeji G. E. Adeleke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-06 2021-10-06 1 29 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430294 Effects of Sarcocephalus latifolius Afzel. Ex R.Br. Leaf Powder on the Kidney Function of Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Rats <p>This study assessed the effects of <em>Sarcocephalus latifolius </em>Afzel. Ex R.Br.<strong> l</strong>eaf powder on the kidney function of alloxan-induced diabetes rats.</p> <p>Forty-five healthy female albino rats were used in the experiment and assigned into 9 different groups. Diabetes was induced intravenously with 150 mg/kg body weight alloxan. Normal and diabetic rats were administered orally with 300, 600, 750mg/kg/ b.w of<em> S. latifolius</em>. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and blood with the kidney were harvested for biochemical and histological studies.</p> <p>In our result, significant (p&lt;0.05) increase was observed in creatinine concentration of diabetic rats, which was significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased upon administration of 300 and 750 mg/kg body weight of <em>Sarcocephalus latifolius</em> leaf powder. No significant (p&gt;0.05) difference was observed in the urea concentration of all the groups. Significant (p&lt;0.05) difference in sodium concentration was only observed between the diabetic untreated and metformin treated groups whereas, potassium concentration varied significantly (p&lt;0.05) across the groups. Certain degenerative changes in the kidney of normal and diabetic rats treated and untreated with <em>S. latifolius</em> leaf powder were observed but at a lower degree in the group treated with the 300 mg/kg/bw of the leaf powder. The result of this study showed the possible renal toxicity potential of the plant at high dose.</p> Olubunmi Simeon Oyekunle Adewale, Adetutu Adijat Funke Ogundola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 35 46 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430296 Comparative In vitro Antibacterial Properties of Methanol Extracts and Fractions of Myristica fragrans Seed and Thymus vulgaris Leaf <p>The aim of this work was to compare the antibacterial properties of methanol extracts and fractions of <em>Myristica fragrans</em> seed and <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> leaf on the gram positive and negative bacteria.&nbsp; The<em> Myristica fragrans</em> seeds were crushed, defatted and air-dried. The defatted seed and leaf powders were separately macerated in absolute methanol for 72 hours. The methanol extracts and fractions were reconstituted at different concentrations of 100mg/mL, 80mg/mL, 60mg/mL, 40mg/mL and 20mg/mL for the antibacterial assay by agar diffusion method with activated cultured <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> , incubated at 37<sup>o</sup>C for 24 hours . The results showed that these plants possess antibacterial activity on the basis of their zones of inhibition. Methanol extract of <em>M</em>. <em>fragrans</em> had a higher activity of 8-19mm on <em>S</em>. <em>aureus</em> than <em>E. coli</em> with 5-14mm range respectively. Ethylacetate fraction had the highest activity with 9-25mm on <em>S. aureus</em>, while chloroform fraction had the highest activity on <em>E. coli</em> with 8-18mm.&nbsp; For <em>T. vulgaris</em>, the methanol extract had a higher activity of 6-18mm on <em>E. coli</em> than <em>S. aureus </em>of 4-17mm and for the fractions, n-hexane fraction had the highest activity of 7-20mm on <em>S. aureus</em> <em>, </em>while aqueous fraction had the highest activity of 5-18mm on <em>E. coli</em>, compared with zones of inhibition of 18mm against <em>S. aureus</em>&nbsp; and 28mm against <em>E. coli </em>&nbsp;for gentamycin of 2mg/mL which was the reference drug. Methanol extracts and fractions of <em>M. fragrans</em> seed and <em>T. vulgaris</em> leaf showed excellent activities on the gram positive and gram negative bacteria but the <em>M. fragrans </em>had a better activity than <em>T. vulgaris</em>.</p> Romanus A. Umoh Affiong C. Essien Imoh I. Johnny Nsima A. Andy Anwanabasi E. Udoh Omodot T. Umoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 47 58 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430297 Effect of Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon on Ted in Subjects with Subacute Lateral Epicondylitis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Lateral Epicondylitis is a overuse syndrome usually seen in people who &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;perform repeated extension and supination movement of elbow against resistance. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Tissue Extensibility Dysfunction (TED) is a term which suggests apparent &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;tightness of the muscle which has occurred due to spasm, lactic acid accumulation, inflammation or over use.</p> <p><strong>Need of The Study:</strong> Many Studies involving manual therapy with different techniques have already demonstrated manual therapy is effective in reducing pain in subjects with lateral epicondylitis. Very few studies have focused on Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon (PRP) which is established to reduce pain and improving range of motion. Also, there is dirth in literature related to tissue extensibility dysfunction occurring in subacute variant of tennis elbow and the effect of PRP on TED. Hence this study is been undertaken.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 50 sample size was randomized into 25 per group. Group A consisted of Conventional therapy and Group B consisted of Conventional therapy with Mulligan’s PRP. Outcome measures were noted pre therapy and on the 7th day that is post therapy and results were tabulated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results declare that pain (0.05 and 0.001), grip strength (0.001, 0.001) and disability (0.001, 0.001) showed significant improvement in the scores in both the group whereas muscle stiffness (0.341 and 0.001) significantly improved only in Group B.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon technique can be used to treat Subacute tennis elbow effectively and is known to reduce the muscle stiffness along with pain and disability and improving strength.</p> Radhika Chintamani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-01 2021-11-01 59 70 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430298 Mitigation of Lead Neurotoxicity by Aqueous Fruit Extract of Adansonia digitata in Adult Wistar Rats <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The current study seeks to explore the neuroprotective benefits of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> against lead induced memory impairment, neurotransmitter/AChE activity imbalance, oxidative stress as well as brain damage.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty male adult rats weighing 160g-200g were divided randomly into six groups (I-V1) consisting of five (5) rats in each group. Group I served as control and were administered with distilled water (1 ml/kg) only while groups II -VI were treatment groups. Group II were administered 250 mg/kg of <em>Adansonia digitata</em>; group III were administered 30 mg/kg of lead; Group IV were administered 250 mg/kg of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group V were administered 500 mg/kg of <em>Adansonia digitata</em> plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group VI were administered 30 mg/kg of lead plus 10 mg/kg of succimer. All administrations were carried out through oral gavage for a period of 28 days.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Lead administration caused memory impairment, decreased dopamine concentration and AChE activity in brain, induced oxidative stress resulting in brain damage.&nbsp; <em>Adansonia digitata</em> treatment significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;.001) attenuated memory impairment, modulated dopamine concentration and AChE activity, prevented oxidative stress and ameliorated histopathological changes in the brain of Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The result showed that<em> Adansonia digitata</em> ameliorates lead-induced memory impairment in Wistar rats by improving memory index, controlling dopamine concentration and AChE activity, preventing oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration.</p> Eduitem S. Otong Sunday A. Musa Barnabas Danborno Sohnap J. Sambo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 71 82 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430299 Finding a Balance between Mood and Energy Level in a Rotational Work System <p>The impact of rotational work system on the mood and energy level among Oil and Gas workers was evaluated. The design was set in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria and questionnaire, cohort session and interviews were the instruments deployed. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected workers from international Oil and Gas Companies located in Port Harcourt, Questions that bothered on the effect of rotational work on the mood and energy level of Oil and Gas workers were posed. It was observed that 38.8% and 41.2% agree and strongly agree that their mood is affected on site while 13.8% remained neutral. Interestingly, over 80% of Oil and Gas workers agreed to feeling of anxiety from the interview and cohort sessions. 40% and 43.8% of workers agree and strongly agree respectively that rotational work does affect their energy on site. Obtained median of 4 means that over 50% of the response belongs to the category that agree strongly agree while a mode of 5 has more responses in the category of strongly agree which is in agreement with results from the percentage frequency. Rotational workers were affected by absence from family and loved ones, social isolation and constant reminder of hazard and working in hazardous environment with work pressures and unrealistic deadlines. These cause depression and general dissatisfaction with life. Results from interviews revealed neglect of mental wellness of workers. The Oil and Gas workers are willing to face these hazards because of the economic gains arising from their work, however provision of recreational amenities and making policies that bring the Oil and Gas workers back home every seven days forbidding the schedule of trainings and workshops during time off duty will make rotational work more bearable.</p> Uloaku Okeke Eucharia Oluchi Nwaichi Princewill Chukwuemeka Stanley ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-17 2021-11-17 113 120 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430301 Phytochemical Constituents and Comparative Antioxidative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants <p>This study was carried out to compare the in-vitro antioxidant potentials, antidiabetic and phytochemical constituents of methanolic leaf extracts of <em>Anthocleista</em><em> djalonensis, Chrysophyllum albidium, Bauhinia thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, </em>and<em> Cola nitida</em>. The results of this study show that all the plant extracts have strong antioxidant potentials against various radicals. The extracts scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner and scavenged nitric oxide radicals with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 152.39, 186.36, 213.40, 303.58 and 355.53 µg/ml for <em>C. albidium, D. oliveri, C. nitida, A. djalonensis and B. thonningii,</em> respectively. All the extracts also inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation and α-amylase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, while the degree of ferric reducing power by the extracts was of the order <em>C. albidium &gt; D. oliveri &gt; B. thonningii &gt; C. nitida &gt; A. djalonensis</em>. Phytochemical and gas chromatography analyses carried out on the extracts revealed the presence of known chemical constituents. The amounts of total phenolics in <em>A. djalonensis, C. albidium, B. thonningii, D. oliveri, </em>and<em> C. nitida</em> were 68.39 mg/g, 95.11 mg/g, 61.03 mg/g, 103.74 mg/g, and 63.31 mg/g, respectively, in gallic acid equivalents. In all cell-free assays, <em>C. albidium </em>and<em> D. oliveri</em><em>,</em> the two plants with higher amounts of phenolic compounds, were found to be more effective as antioxidants than other plant extracts with lower phenolic contents under the same experimental conditions. Therefore, the effectiveness of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of these plant extracts may be related to their phenolic content. The presence of phenolics and various antioxidant compounds in the plants may explain the strong pharmacological potentials of these plants.</p> Abiodun Olusoji Owoade Adewale Adetutu Olufemi Ogundeji Ogundipe Akinade William Owoade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-19 2021-11-19 121 133 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430302 Phytochemical Characterization, Hepatoprotective Activity on Alcohol-Induced Toxicity of the Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) in Wistar Rats <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Liver or hepatic disease refers to different conditions that affect the liver. Chronic alcohol consumption is one of the most frequent causes of liver disease and accounts for about 55% of liver cirrhosis deaths recorded in Cameroon in 2020. Standard accessible treatments focus on end-stage liver disease with safety and efficacy obstacles. We have a research gap in Cameroon to understand the alternative use of natural products as treatment with a long traditional history of safe use. <em>Curcuma longa</em> has long been a source of traditional and modern medicine. It is commonly used in Cameroon as a spice and herbal product with some level of activity against various forms of liver disease.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To phytochemically screen for bioactive metabolites and evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of <em>Curcuma longa</em>on alcohol-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extract obtainedfrom maceration of plant rhizomes. Three doses (125, 250 and 500mg/Kg) of the plant extract and the reference (Silymarin 50mg/Kg) were administered daily (p.o) to rats 30 min before administration of 40% alcohol (2mL/100g p.o) for 21 days. Biochemical parameters such as ALAT, ASAT, GGT, Bilirubin and Lipid profile were quantified and histological studies of the liverwas carried out using standard procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of <em>C. longa </em>revealed polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins, quinones, saponins and phlobatanins. The plant showed hepatoprotective activity by decreasing liver toxicity markers such as ASAT, ALAT, GGT and Bilirubin. Histology revealed dose-dependent protection with 500 mg/Kg showing the most cellular integrity, no central vein occlusion and minimal fibrosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study indicated the presence of polyphenols like flavonoids and tannins in the aqueous extract of <em>C. longa</em>. The presence of these secondary metabolites in the studied extract justifies its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by its hepatoprotective effects on alcohol-induced toxicity. This was clearly shown by biochemical and histological parameters. More sensitive and specific methods are required to test for these secondary metabolites in serum.</p> Ameaka Fatima Nkempu Tembe Estella Tchadji Mayoudom Vanessa Edwige Bayaga Herve Dobgima John Fonmboh Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy Njinkio Borgia Nono Tabi Yves Omgba Ngameni Bathelemy Fokunang Charles ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-27 2021-11-27 134 149 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430303 Comparative Study on Treatment using Water-based Extract of Fresh and Dry Unripe Banana Peels with Conventional Antibiotics on UTI <p>Almost every part of a banana plant has use in medicine. Increased bacterial resistance to the conventional antibiotics&nbsp;has led to research into the development of alternative treatments to conventional antibiotics. This study focuses on the antimicrobial properties of banana peels against selected isolates from Urinary Tract Infection sample. The isolates from cultures further analysed with agarose gel electrophoresis for the presence of 16SrRNA and Phylogenetic analysis revealed Staphylococcus sciuri strain, a coagulase‐negative species, <em>Escherichia coli,</em> <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Proteus mirabilis</em>. Fresh unripe and dry unripe were used to determine the antimicrobial activities. A measure of 150grams of both fresh unripe and dry unripe was extracted with 100ml of water solvent (sterile) respectively for about 2days. The solvent extracts were concentrated separately under reduced pressure,&nbsp; 10g of each concentrated solvent extracts were dissolved in 5ml of sterile distilled water and used for antimicrobial assay using agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical analysis of fresh unripe and dry unripe revealed that alkaloid, flavonoid, cardiac glycosids,and phenols were present.. <em>Musa sapientum L</em> peels showed some effect on <em>Escherichia coli, Enterococcusfaecalis, Staphylococcus sciuri, Klebsiellapneumoniae</em> and <em>Proteus mirabilisat</em> 80% concentrations for water. Dry unripe has advantage over fresh unripe banana peels. The peels of <em>Musa sapientum</em> exhibited some inhibitory activity on these selected UTIs isolates, which could be attributed to the presence of certain secondary metabolites. Finally, when compared the peels extracts against the standard antibiotics drugs as the control, the water solvent extract were less effective.</p> Konne Felix Eedee Isomah Chiladi Ogbonna Ikechi Solomon Easter Nwokah Amadi Chikadibia Fyneface ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-01 2021-12-01 150 156 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430304 Antioxidant Potentials of Pentaclethra macrophylla Seed (Ugba) on Mercury Toxicity Induced Hepatic, Renal and Testicular Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of <em>Pentaclethra macrophylla</em> seed (Ugba) on mercury-induced hepatic, renal and testicular oxidative stress in male Albino Rats.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This study is an experimental study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Animal and Environmental Biology Animal House, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between January 2019 and January 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty-six (36) adult male albino rats weighing approximately 135±1.5g were purchased from the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. They were housed in plastic suspended cages, placed in well-ventilated conditions and provided with rat diet and water, and acclimatized for two weeks. Fresh matured seeds of <em>Pentaclethra macrophylla</em> (African oil bean seed) were sourced locally from markets in Imo state, Nigeria.&nbsp; The maceration technique was used to carry out an ethanolic extract of the plant seed. Mercury chloride salt was purchased from Port Harcourt. A standard dose of 3.0mg/kg body weight of mercury chloride obtained from acute toxicity study dose determination was administered to the rats for 30 days after they were divided into six groups of six rats per group. After 30 days, all the animals were weighed, anesthetized using chloroform. Tissue samples of liver, kidney, and testis were collected and homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and stored at 4<sup>0</sup>C for determination of oxidative stress assessment. Malondialdehyde, Reduced Glutathione (GSH), Catalase Activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Glutathione Peroxidase Activity were analyzed using the homogenized sample. Data were expressed as mean ±SD, and the statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS statistics 23.0, and p values less than .05 were considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that there were significant increases (<em>P&lt;.05</em>) in the liver, kidney, and testicular MDA and significant decreases (<em>p&lt;.05)</em> in SOD, CAT, GSH, and GPx activities in group 2 rats versus control. However, after treatment with different concentrations of <em>Pentaclethra macrophylla,</em> MDA activity significantly decreased (<em>P&lt;.05</em>), while SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH significantly increased (<em>P&lt;.05</em>).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results obtained from the study showed that mercury chloride has the potential to cause liver, kidney, and testicular toxicity to adult male albino rats, and this toxicity was exerted majorly through oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. However, treatment with <em>Pentaclethra macrophylla </em>seed extract ameliorated oxidative stress.</p> J. D. Nwahiri D. G. Tamuno-Emine E. O. Nwachuku E. S. Bartimaeus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-02 2021-12-02 157 167 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430305 Antioxidant Potential of Crude Methanol Leaf extract and Fraction of Mallotus oppositifolius <p><em>Mallotus oppositifolius</em> (Geiseler) Mull. Arg.&nbsp; (Euphorbiaceae) is a predominant edible shrub in Nigeria. It is locally used for treatment of common infections and wounds. This study evaluated the toxicity and antioxidant potential of the crude extract and fractions of <em>M</em>.<em> oppositifolius</em> using invitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The result showed abundance of flavonoids (28.21), tannins (17.72), alkaloids (7.79) and Saponins (0.23) in the crude extract of <em>M</em>.<em> oppositifolius</em> leaf extract. Also, the result showed that the LD<sub>50 </sub>is above 5000 mg/kg, therefore the crude extract is safe for consumption. The result further showed that the ethyl-acetate and butanol had significant (p&lt;0.05) antioxidant activity when compared with the control at 125, 62.5 and 31.125 µg/ml respectively while at 250 and 500 µg/ml there was no significant different in the level of reduction of oxidation between the butanol and ethyl acetate when compared with the control. The result further showed that the butanol and ethyl-acetate fraction of <em>M</em>.<em> oppositifolius </em>had the best antioxidant potential among the fractions studied.</p> <p>The result of GCMS studies of ethyl-acetate fraction showed the presence of 7,10,13-eicosatrienoic acid methyl ester, korormicin, agosterol, phyllanthin, ricinoic acid, 2,4,6-decatrienoic acid 1a,2,5,5a,6,9,10,10a-octahydro-5,5a-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-1,1,7,9, limonin, com-pounds that have shown to possess strong antioxidant activities. Also, the GCMS result of butanol fraction showed the presence of seven compounds which include: ferulylhistamine, hippeastrine, 10,13-eicosadienoic acid methyl ester, ethyl 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate, 6-hydroxy-powelline-N-nitroso-7-demethoxy-aldehyde, 6,7-epoxypregn-4-ene-9,11,18-triol-3,20-dione 11,18-diacetate and 5Alpha-androstane-3,17-dione 17-monooxime,&nbsp; compounds which may serve as a new lead for the treatment of diseases associated with the oxidative stress.</p> Ifeanyi Peter Onyeka Felix Ahamefule Onyegbule Christopher Obodike Ezugwu Chibueze Jeremiah Ike Chidalu B. Ikeotuonye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 168 184 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430306 Cytotoxic Synergism between a Proprietary Commiphora mukul Gum Extract GU-MCT810, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, and Metformin in Human Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma and Hepatoma Cell Lines In vitro <p>In this investigation we have analyzed the synergism for the cytotoxic effect of a proprietary guggul gum extract (GU), 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and metformin (Met) in SJRH30 human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines <em>in vitro</em>. 2-DG and Met as single agents have weak cytotoxic effects in both cell lines. However, the combination of GU+2-DG, GU+Met and 2-DG+Met showed synergism for cytotoxic effect by CompuSyn analysis. Therefore, GU can be included in the combination of drugs involving 2-DG and Met to have synergistic effect. GU also showed a dose-dependent increase in cellular glucose uptake in HepG2 cells like the antidiabetic drug 2,4-thiozolidine dione (TZ). The demonstration of synergism of anticancer effects between GU, metformin and 2-DG, suggest that their mechanisms are in general complementary, though further studies are required to delineate the mechanism of GU, 2-DG and metformin combinations.</p> Cheppail Ramachandran Karl-Werner Quirin Steven J. Melnick ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-11 2021-12-11 185 195 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430307 A Mixed Questionnaire Study on Prayer as Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Ghana <p><strong>Background: </strong>Prayer is paramount in the spiritual welfare and development of an individual. Interestingly, prayer is also considered as a form of complementary alternative medicine and is employed in primary healthcare delivery.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of prayer in primary healthcare delivery as a form of complementary healthcare. This study also investigates why patients opt for prayer as an alternative to standard medical care and ultimately to review the scientific aspect of prayer in medicine.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study incorporates a mixed methods study with integrated data analysis. The respondents in this study were selected practitioners of Naturopathic Medicine with pastoral background, who belong to the Association of Naturopathic Medicine Practitioners in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Patients and complementary and alternative medicine practitioners alike in Ghana believe that prayer is very important to aid recovery and hence, plays an integral role as complementary medicine in healthcare.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study demonstrates that there is a role of prayer as complementary alternative medicine in primary healthcare delivery. We therefore hold the view that, pastors at the prayer camps should be well educated in basic medical sciences to enable an effective referral pathway to the standard medical centers.</p> Raphael Nyarkotey Obu Lawrencia Aggrey-Bluwey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 196 208 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430309 Evaluation of Anti-depressant, Anti-anxiety and Muscle Relaxant Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Aerva javanica Roots <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate anti-depressant, anti-anxiety and muscle relaxant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of <em>Aerva javanica </em>roots in various experimental animal models.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Animal study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted in Bilwal Medchem and Research Laboratory, Jaipur from July 2021-August 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The root powder of <em>Aerva javanica </em>was extracted with hydroalcoholic solvent (70% ethanol). The hydroalcoholic extract at three doses 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg was checked for anti-depressant and skeletal muscle relaxant activity in the experimental animal models. To determine the anti-depressant activity tail suspension test, locomotor activity, open field test, and MAO inhibitor assay were done; to determine the anti-anxiety activity hole board test was used; and to determine the skeletal muscle relaxant activity rotarod test, grip strength test, and chimney test were done.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the tail suspension test, the extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced the duration of immobility compared to normal control (p&lt;0.0001). The extract at dose 400 mg/kg significantly reduced MAO-A and MAO-B activity compared to the normal control group (p&lt;0.01 and p&lt;0.05, respectively). The extract at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg were able to decrease locomotor activity in actophotomoter and increased time spent in centre square in open field test revealing the sedative effect of the extract. In hole board test, the extract at dose 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly increased number of head dip count (p&lt;0.0001 and p&lt;0.001) respectively. In the rotarod test, the extract at dose 200 and 400 mg/kg decreased the time spent on the rotating rod (p&lt;0.0001), compared to normal control. Similarly, in the grip strength test the extract at dose 200 and 400 mg/kg decreased the time spend on suspended wire revealing the skeletal muscle relaxant property of the test extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the result, it can be concluded that the extract exert anti-depressant, anti-anxiety and skeletal muscle relaxant like activity in the experimental rat which was hypothesized to be attributed to the flavonoids present in the hydroalcoholic root extract of <em>Aerva javanica.</em></p> Mohammed Waqas Peeyush Kumar Sharma Sandeep Kumar Yadav Mohammad Asif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 209 222 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430310 Perceived Sustainability and Reliability of Naturopathic Birth Control Methods; A Study in Ningo-Prampram, Ghana <p><strong>Background: </strong>According to worldwide estimates, some 600,000 women die each year of pregnancy-related causes, and another 75,000 die following unsafe abortions. At least 200,000 of these maternal deaths are attributable to the failure or lack of contraceptive services. Naturopathic birth control methods have been proven to be a safe and effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancies</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> this study aimed to examine the use of naturopathic birth control methods and to explore the perceived reliability and perceived sustainability of naturopathic birth control methods among adults.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used. Adults in the Ningo-Prampram Municipality were randomly sampled to select 100 respondents, who were then administered with the structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. Results were presented using descriptive metrics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;Majority of the respondents (39.6%) strongly agree to the use of naturopathic birth control methods 12 months. 34.1% strongly agreed as against 2.2% who strongly disagreed to the reliability of naturopathic birth control methods. 38.5 showed agreement as against 19.8% showing disagreement on the reliability of naturopathic birth control methods. 49.5% agreeing strongly to its sustainability, as against 3.3% disagreeing strongly.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>It is indicative that given the benefits of naturopathic birth control methods, more adults are in strong agreement of its usage, reliability and sustainability, since it presents the user with no later life health issues such as infertility and complications in parturition. It is therefore important that, the issues of Sexually Transmitted infections (STIs) are addressed with abstinence and or fidelity with one sexual partner.</p> Raphael Nyarkotey Obu Lawrencia Aggrey-Bluwey Ruth Nartey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 223 229 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430311 Micromorphological and Pharmacognostic Studies of Leaf and Stem of Solenostemon monostachyus P. Beauv (Lamiaceae) <p><em>Solenostemon monostachyus </em>P. Beauv (Lamiaceae), it’s ethnomedical uses include anti-plasmodial, anti-pyretic, antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. The aim of this study was to employ the quality control parameters in the evaluation of the leaf and stem of <em>Solenostemon monostachyus </em>to aid in the identification and standardization of the medicinal plant. The plant leaves and stems were collected, identified, air-dried, pulverized and stored in separate glass containers. Standard procedures were employed to obtain the microscopic features of the fresh and powdered samples, micromeritic, chemomicroscopy, fluorescence properties, moisture contents, ash values and soluble extractive values. The results of the microscopic studies using fresh and powdered leaf samples revealed the presence of diacytic stomata on both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces (amphistomatic), with stomatal index of 27.9% and 14.8% respectively. The result of the micromeritics properties of the powdered leaf and stem samples showed angles of repose of 38.0<sup>o</sup> and 46.0<sup>o</sup>, Carr’s index of 23.7% and 32.5% and Hausner’s ratios of 1.3 and 1.5 respectively. Results for the moisture content, total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values were 11.7%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub>, 13.7%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub>, 1.8%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> and 9.4%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> for the leaf and 13.3%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub>, 17.3%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub>, 1.8%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> and 9.2%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> for the stem respectively. Extractive values for water-soluble, methanol-soluble and ethanol-soluble were 26.5%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub>, 32.3%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub>, 14.5%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> and 15.5%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub>, 15.8%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> and 14.5%<sup>w</sup>/<sub>w</sub> for the leaf and stem respectively. Chemomicroscopy indicated the presence of lignin, calcium oxalate crystals and protein in the leaf and stem. The results obtained therefore could be used to establish pharmacopoeial standard for the fresh and powdered drug products of<em> Solenostemon</em> <em>monostachyus</em>, thus preventing adulteration.</p> Romanus A. Umoh Imoh I. Johnny Anwanabasi E. Udoh Nsima A. Andy Affiong C. Essien Inyang J. Udoh Winnie E. Emeh Otobong E. Umanah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 230 240 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430312 Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extra Virgin Avocado (Persea americana) Oil and Extra Virgin Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Oil on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats <p>Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal elevation of blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia). Despite significant milestones achieved using conventional drugs in managing the disease, there are some drawbacks associated with their use such as drug resistance, adverse drug effects, high cost, and sometimes outright therapeutic failure. The urgent need to bridge this therapeutic lacuna calls for further exploration and investigation of other treatment options. This study therefore aims at evaluating the antidiabetic potentials of virgin avocado oil and virgin coconut oil in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups of five rats each. Group 1 (negative control) received 10 ml /kg/day of normal saline, group 2 (diabetic control) -10 ml/kg/day of normal saline; group 3 received extra virgin avocado oil (1 ml/250 g) body weight, group 4 received extra virgin coconut oil (2 ml/kg) bodyweight, and group 5 received 10 mg/kg/day of metformin. Treatments were administered orally for 15 days. Extra virgin avocado oil and extra virgin coconut oil respectively showed significant antidiabetic activities, and may be beneficial for management of diabetes mellitus.</p> Samuel J. Offor Adedayo A. Tologbonse Uduak P. Iseh Deborah E. Okoh SifonObong Akpan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 241 250 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430313 Annona muricata L. Suppresses Stannous Chloride Effects through Changing Hematological Parameters in Male New Zealand White Rabbits <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Annona muricata.</em> L has a wide range of therapeutic characteristics and is frequently used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments. Stannous chloride (SnCl<sub>2</sub>) are widely used in daily life and distributed in many tissues and nutrients. Although over-ingestion of SnCl<sub>2</sub>, can cause health problems, relatively little attention has been given to the toxic effects of this compound in livestock health and hematological parameters. This study was designed to study protective roles of <em>A. muricata </em>L. against SnCl<sub>2</sub> effects through alleviating hematological disturbances in adult male New-Zealand white rabbits.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Four rabbits per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 0 mg <em>A. muric</em>ata and 0 mg SnCl<sub>2</sub>/kg BW (control); 100 mg of <em>A. muricata</em> /kg BW; 20 mg SnCl<sub>2</sub>/kg BW; 20 mg SnCl<sub>2</sub> plus 100 mg of <em>A. muricata</em> /kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered the respective doses every other day for 10 weeks.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The obtained results showed that <em>A. muricata</em> alone caused increase in body weight, relative weight of liver, lung, heart and kidney. It also caused increase hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) level and number of platelets (PLT) compared to control. However, treatment with <em>A. muricata</em> was caused significant decrease in white blood cell counts (WBCs) and non-significant decrease in red blood cell counts (RBCs), mean cell volume (MCV). Meanwhile, treatment with SnCl<sub>2</sub> was lead to adverse effect on the body weight and relative organs weight practically spleen. It was caused significant increase in WBCs, MCV compared to control. The rest of hematological parameters (RBCs, PCV, PLT, Hb and MCHC) were significantly decreased, which indicated to cause anemia. Previous parameters were returned to normal values in group that treatment with <em>A. muricata</em> plus SnCl<sub>2</sub>. In term of bone marrow smear, all smears are similar in terms of numbers and types of cells.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Results of the present study convincingly demonstrated that SnCl<sub>2</sub> exposure resulted in varying degree of hematological parameters of rabbits. <em>A. muricata</em> has been promise as nutritional supplements to help prevent disorders involving SnCl<sub>2</sub> induced these effects. Thus <em>A. muricata</em> may be helpful to combat SnCl2 associated sufferings in human as well as animal.</p> Marfoua. S. Ali Fayrouz A. khaled Hajir Sh Saloumah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 251 262 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430314 Preparation and Standardization of an Anti-Oxidant Poly-Herbal Formulation: Prospective Anti-Cancer Medicine <p>Oxidative stress is a causative factor leading to many pathological states. Herbs are one of the natural source of anti-oxidants. Anti-oxidants may safely interact with free radicals to counterbalance or bring to an end the chain reaction before damage may occur at cellular level in any major organ. The purpose of the study was to prepare and standardize an anti-oxidant poly-herbal formulation. The active ingredients of the formulation include; <em>Curcuma longa</em>, <em>Nigella sativa</em>, <em>Allium sativum</em>, <em>Zingiber officinalis</em> and <em>Cinnamon zeylanicum</em>. The formulation may reduce oxidative stress and be of benefit in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases including cancer patients. It may be especially of value in preventing cancer in susceptible population with genetic tendency. Standardization of the formulation was carried out for assessment of its safety, efficacy and quality. The tests performed included; macroscopic evaluation, microscopic analysis, fluorescence analysis, preliminary physical property, phyto-chemical analysis, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and cytotoxicity studies. The formulation exhibited positive results against the properties evaluated. The standardization of the preparation was done and the results found are being used for pre-clinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, the results of the study maybe be used as a standard for future reference.</p> Farah-Saeed . H. Akhter U. Raza M. W. Ali H. Nasir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 263 274 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430315 Pterocarpus soyauxii (Fabaceae) Heartwood Aqueous Extract Exhibits Anti-osteoporotic Activities in a Postmenopausal-like Model <p>Previous studies showed that <em>Pterocarpus soyauxii</em> (<em>P. soyauxii</em>) exhibits estrogenic activities ease menopausal disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate anti-osteoporotic activities of the aqueous extract of <em>P. soyauxii</em> heartwood in ovariectomized (Ovx) Wistar rats. To achieve this, an 84-day postmenopausal osteoporosis model was used. Twenty-five female rats were ovariectomized and 5 others were sham-operated (Sham). After 84 days of hypoestrogenism, Ovx animals were divided into 5 groups including a group receiving distilled water at 10 mL/kg, a group receiving estradiol valerate (E<sub>2</sub>V) at 1 mg/kg, and three groups receiving <em>P. soyauxii</em> extract at 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg; Sham-operated animals received vehicle (10 mL/kg). After 28 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected in EDTA tubes for blood count and in dry test tubes. Some femoral and seric biochemical analyses were carried out. The relative mass of both tibia and femur, and femoral density were assessed. As result, oophorectomy significantly increased the level of white blood cells (WBC) (p ˂0.01), MDA (p ˂0.01), nitrites (p ˂0.001), and urinary calcium/urinary creatinine ratio (p ˂0.01). Ovx animals presented a low femoral calcium and phosphorus levels (p ˂0.05) likewise ALP activity in both serum and femur compared to sham group. Thus, they also presented numerous resorption lacunae in the tibia and femur and a disorganization of tibia trabecular bone. <em>P. soyauxii</em> extract at 300 mg/kg significantly decreased WBC (p ˂0.05), MDA (p ˂0.01), and nitrites (p ˂0.001) compared to vehicle. At the dose of 200 mg/kg, <em>P. soyauxii</em> extract significantly increased femoral calcium (p ˂0.05), seric phosphorus (p ˂0.01), and ALP activity (p ˂0, 05) in both femur and serum, as well as relative femoral mass (p ˂0.05) and density (p ˂0.001). Furthermore, the plant extract at 200 and 300 mg/kg reduced resorptive lacunae and reconstituted trabecular bone in Ovx animals. Overall, aqueous extract of <em>P. soyauxii</em> exhibits anti-osteoporotic activities in a postmenopausal-like model in Wistar rats.</p> Owona Pascal Emmanuell Mengue Ngadena Yolande Sandrine Mbolang Nguegan Lohik Bidingha A. Goufani Ronald Ngoungoure Madeleine Chantal Kegne Ségolène Tcheutchoua Yannick Carlos Bilanda Danielle Claude Kamtchouing Pierre Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-22 2021-12-22 275 285 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430316 Role of Jundi-Shapur in Streamlining of ILM-E-TIBB (Medicine) <p>People have always felt the need to seek the knowledge from time immemorial. Be it the knowledge of religion or science or philosophy or astronomy. The knowledge of medicine was confined to cultures till 4<sup>th</sup> century AD. Every subcontinent and every civilization was having its own traditions to treat the diseases, e.g. Ayurved in India, Egyptian traditional medicine in Egypt, Chinese traditional medicine in China, Iranian Traditional medicine in Iran etc etc.</p> <p>It was during the 5<sup>th</sup> century AD when Roman Empire cracked down on its seminaries and the intellectuals were forced to leave the country. Those intellectuals were given refuge by Persian Empire where in a city was established with ultimate autonomy under Khusro, Jundi-Shapur became a prosperous metropolis, refuge, and melting pot for intellectuals from many regions. Shapur II (309-379 A.D.) is credited for conceiving and establishing the nucleus of the university in the latter part of the fourth century. The closing of the Athenian school by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (AD 539) also drove many leaned Greek physicians to Jundi-Shapur. This was the start of the integration of different traditional medicine of different civilizations. This formed the basis of what we see today as modern medicine. In this way <em>JundiShapur</em> has important role in the development of Medical knowledge and it remained in the leading role until 9<sup>th</sup> Century AD.</p> Younis I. Munshi Masihuzzaman Ansari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-09 2021-10-09 30 34 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430295 Nutritional Management Approach for Possible Prevention of COVID-19 Infection and Transmission in Sub-Saharan and Biodiversity Endowed Countries <p>The causative etiology of the viral pneumonia outbreak in the Wuhan province of China of December 2019 initially identified as “novel-Coronavirus-2019” and today called “Corona Virus Disease-2019 has been identified as “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Tireless efforts have therefore been invested to elaborate a treatment and/ or vaccine though with much controversy due to the lack of proper mastery of the structure, mode of action, mutation, recombination and transmission mechanism of the virus. Numerous public health measures have thus been imposed to slow down the rate of invasion and/or transmission (regular hand washing, face mask wearing, quarantine as well as method of diagnosis and symptomatic treatment) and now a convinent and acceptable treatment protocol and/ or vaccine. With the difficulties encountered in the development of an effective and efficient control and / or preventive towards the virus even in the western world, countries in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those in the tropics like Cameroon will endure sigficant consequences due to limited funds, technology, equipment and experts. It is therefore imperative to exploit other possibilities as the recombination rate and mutation possibilities within the genome of SARS-CoV-2 is indicative that, the 2019 outbreak was just a tip of the iceberg as more virulent variants beyond Delta variants, are still to emerge. One of such suitable and affordable possibilities is to nutritionally fortify and prepared the body to fight against infection. Zinc, Copper and Sellenium are essential micronutrients with demonstrated viral chelating activities found in selected commond foods which in adequate amounts will strengthen the immune system and tonify the body energy. A non-exhaustive list of common foods rich in the indicated micronutrients as well as those endowed with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties have been established from an extensive literature search in order to emphasize on the regular consumption.</p> Dobgima John Fonmboh Tembe Estella Fokunang Ngwasiri Pride Ndasi Thierry N. Noumo Njinkio Nono Borgia Lovet Bengyella Fokunang Edrice Ajabi Eselle Samelle Bengyella Louis Tita Kaba Nubia Kristen Ejoh Richard Aba A. Tita Margarete Fokunang Charles Ntugwen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-12 2021-11-12 83 112 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430300