Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research (ISSN: 2456-6276)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JOCAMR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in the areas of Complementary, Alternative and Integrative medical research. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research) (Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research) Mon, 03 May 2021 09:42:44 +0000 OJS 60 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of the Leaves of Senna siamea <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of leaves of <em>Senna siamea</em>. A sequential solvent extraction procedure was used in extracting powdered <em>Senna</em> leaves, starting with hexane, ethylacetate, ethanol and distilled water, respectively. Dry extracts obtained were tested at various concentrations against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi </em>and<em> Candida albicans.</em> Antioxidant (Qualitative and quantitative) and antiproliferative tests were carried out on samples of the dry extracts. Ethylacetate extract of <em>Senna siamea</em> showed the highest antibacterial activity against <em>S. typhi </em>(zone of inhibition 15.0 mm) at concentration of 500mg/ml. The aqueous extract had the highest antioxidant activity, evidenced by a low IC<sub>50</sub> value of 12.89µg/ml. Antiproliferative activity was determined by calculating the percentage inhibition of germination of <em>Sorghum bicolor L.</em> seeds under appropriate conditions. Plants that inhibit seed germination may inhibit tumour growth. At 24 hours, the plant showed strong antiproliferative activity as evidenced by the high percentage inhibition. Ethanolic extract had the highest antiproliferative activity (90%) at 5000µg/ml, followed by the aqueous extract (88.5%). However, at 48 hours, all organic extracts showed very weak antiproliferative activity as evidenced by the low % inhibition. Only the aqueous extract showed considerable antiproliferative activity at 5000µg/ml (45%). This implies that the aqueous extract has considerable antiproliferative activity, hence, it may be a promising anticancer drug or has components that have anticancer properties. This shows that <em>Senna</em> leaves could serve as source of bioactive compounds with potential antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer properties.</p> K. F. Oyebade, A. J. Daspan, Y. Denkok, T. E. Alemika, O. S. Ojerinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 04 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Artepillin C Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Cell Cycle Arrest at G0/G1 Phase Accompanied by Up-Regulation of p27Kip1 in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells <p>Artepillin C, 3, 5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, is one of the bioactive constituents in Brazilian propolis. In the present study, the anticarcinogenic activity of this compound was investigated in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Artepillin C inhibited the cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner accompanied by G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> phase arrest in the cell cycle. This compound caused a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of the retinoblastoma protein at Ser780 and Ser807/811 and a decrease in the kinase activity of the cyclinD and CDK4 complex without any change in these protein levels. Artepillin C increased the protein level of p27<sup>Kip1</sup>, known as a CDK inhibitor. This up-regulation was regulated by both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, <em>i.e.</em>, the treatment increased the mRNA of p27<sup>Kip1</sup> and decreased the proteosome activity. Thus, artepillin C induces cell cycle arrest at G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> phase accompanied by up-regulation of p27<sup>Kip1</sup>, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation in HepG2 cells. This study suggested that artepillin C will be a promising anti-cancer agent against hepatoma cancer.</p> Takashi Hashimoto, Weitao Shang, Kazuki Kanazawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 08 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Effect of Jatropha integerrima (Euphorbiaceae) on the renal Function of Male Albino Wistar Rats Exposed to Chromium <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of <em>Jathropha interrigima </em>on renal function of male Albino Wistar rats exposed to chromium.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; The study is an experimental study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between March 2020 and December 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A total of 30 male Albino Wistar rats that weighed between 140-210g were used for this study. This study was done in three phases: Acute, Sub-chronic and Chronic phases and <em>Jathropha interrigima</em> extract was given to the rats as a prophylaxis (PRE) within the three phases and as a therapeutic (POST) substance within the three phases. Blood samples were collected at the end of each phase for both PRE and POST by cardiac puncture and separated into microvials tubes for the evaluation of the renal parameters listed above using a Selectra Pro-S automated chemistry analyzer<em>.</em> The kidneys were also harvested for histological studies using haematoxilin stain. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22.0 and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>For the Acute Phase, the rats exposed to Chromium (Treatment Group) given the Jathropha extract prophylactically(PRE) had mean Potassium level( 7.33 ± 0.51mmol/l) which was significantly higher than the positive control (5.5 ± 0.42mmol/l); whereas for the Treatment group given the Jathropha extract therapeutically (POST) had mean Sodium level (134.7 ± 2.08mmol/l) which was significantly higher than the negative control (126.5 ± 2.21mmol/l) and the positive control( 130.0 ± 0.01mmol/l), also a CRP level (1.6 ± 0.06u/ml) which was significantly higher than the PC ( 1.5±0.0u/ml1) and NC (1.3± 0.01u/ml) and a KIM level (16.7±0.10u/ml) which was significantly higher than the PC(14.3±0.01u/ml) and NC ( 1.3±0.01u/ml) respectively. In the Sub-chronic phase, Rats in the PRE had TG mean CRP (1.5±0.42u/ml) and KIM (16.1±1.72iu/l) which were significantly higher than the NC and PC (1.2±0.07); whereas those in POST had mean Potassium level (4.5 ± 0.20) which was significantly lower than PC and NC, a mean Bicarbonate level (20.0 ± 1.00) which was higher than PC and NC. And an Anion Gap (12.7 ± 0.58) which was significantly lower than the controls. Mean CRP, KIM, Urea and Creatinine levels in the treatment group where significantly lower than in the controls. A similar result occurred at the chronic phases for both PRE and POST. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study indicate that exposure to Chromium caused a Renal injury and <em>Jathropha interrigima</em> may have the potential to heal or reverse the injurious effect if given as a therapy for upto 30 to 60 days.</p> M. J. Andy-Nwokocha, E. O. Nwachuku, E. S. Bartimaeus, C. C. Obunwo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 08 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Scientific Basis for the Innovative Uses of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) mentioned by Unani Scholars in different ailments <p>The Unani Medicine is a comprehensive medical system, which meticulously deals with the various states of health and disease. It provides promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative healthcare. The fundamentals, diagnosis and treatment modalities of the system are based on scientific principles and holistic concepts of health and healing. The history of Unani Medicine is traced back to ancient Egypt and Babylon, but Hippocrates (460–370 BC) is the father of Unani Medicine who set the ground for Medicine to develop it as a systematic science. Other scholars like Galen (129-200 AD); <em>Rabban Ṭabarī</em> (775-890 AD), al Rāzī (865-925 AD) and Ibn Sīnā (980-1037 AD) developed Unani Medicine to great heights. The system is enriched with detailed therapeutic uses of plant, mineral and animal origin drugs. Ibn Baytār’s classical pharmacopoeia describes 1400 medicinal plants and minerals, while the largest Indian compendium by <em>Muḥammad Najm al Ghanī</em> published in 1930, describes 2500 natural products. Unani scholars retain its traditional strength successfully and also benefitting from contemporary scientific development over the years. The system fully appropriated the paradigm of validation of existing knowledge on modern scientific parameters as well as new action of existing drugs was also discovered. Henna (<em>Lawsonia inermis </em>L.) is a commonly used medicinal plant of Unani Medicine which has Blood Purifier, Abortifacient, Analgesic, Astringent, Brain Tonic, Diuretic properties and used in the treatment of different diseases, e.g. <em>Jarb-o-Hikka</em> (Scabies), <em>Juzaam</em> (Leprosy), <em>Bars</em> (Leukoderma), <em>Iltehaab-e-Mafasil</em> (Arthritis), <em>Dunbal</em> (Boils) and <em>Zarba-o-Saqta </em>(bruises), <em>Su'aal</em> (Bronchitis), <em>Harq-o-Salq</em> (Burn and Scald), <em>Humrah Dimaaghia</em> (Erysipelas), <em>Hasbah</em> (Measles) and <em>Judree</em> (Small Pox) and <em>Suda’ </em>(Headache). This paper is a view to present a snapshot of the scientific aspects and the relevance of Henna (<em>Lawsonia inermis </em>L<em>.</em>) mentioned by Unani Physicians in the contemporary and emerging health scenario.</p> Jamal Akhtar, Fouzia Bashir, Salma Bi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 May 2021 09:44:18 +0000