Open Access Short Communication
Antioxidants are known to play a vital role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus, provide immunity to human body against various infections and chronic diseases. Nowadays the modern research is moving towards plant based “Natural antioxidants” due to their safety, easy availability and better curative value. So the main reason of the present study was to assess the in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts of Allium cepa which is a very commonly used food worldwide.
Aim: Estimation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of the Allium cepa extract.
Study Design: Red onions were purchased from the market, washed in water to remove the dust and then dried for 20 days. The methanol and aqueous extracts of the bulb were prepared and investigated for their antioxidant activity.
Methodology: The methanol and aqueous extracts of the bulb were prepared and investigated for their antioxidant activity by using FeCl3, DPPH, Superoxide scavenging and FRAP methods. The total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.
Results: The total phenolic content showed a higher value (47 mg/100 ml) in the aqueous extract compared to (41 mg/100 ml) in the methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract by using FeCl3, DPPH, Superoxide scavenging and FRAP methods were found to be 13.1%, 23%, 33%, 21.7% and that of methanol extract were 17.5%, 35.5%, 37.8%, 38.7% respectively.
Conclusion: From the above study it has been concluded that, both extracts showed an important antioxidant activity. However the methanol extract proved to have higher antioxidant activity. It was further observed that the phenolic content was higher in the aqueous extract of Allium cepa. Further study will be conducted to isolate the active components responsible for the activity.
Open Access Minireview Article
Cupping therapy is one of the oldest healing methods and practiced by ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks. There are many types of cupping therapy and recently, practitioners and researchers have added more types to the practice of cupping. This research aimed to classify types of cupping to help in modernization and standardization of cupping therapy. This proposed classification of cupping therapy that might guide researchers stay organized, help them to differentiate and compare various types, raise their knowledge of cupping and precisely clarify cupping types terms and methods related to research in future. The proposed classification of cupping into six main categories will also help the field of cupping therapy in uniform training of concerned therapists.
Open Access Original Research Article
Solanum macrocarpon is a plant with edible fruit and its potentials as a medicinal herb have also been investigated. Its leaf extract had been suggested to have effects that could ameliorate myocardial infarction. In the current investigation, S. macrocarpon leaf aqueous extract effects on the brain tissue was observed when it is being used to ameliorate induced myocardial infarction; because its effects on the brain was also considered to be very important so as to investigate the safety of its use on brain health. Thirty adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each; Group A served as control and were only fed ad libitum and administered placebo. Group B rats were animals that suffered induced myocardial infarction but did not receive any therapeutic intervention. Group C received 100 mg/kg of S. macrocarpon aqueous leaf extract; Group D received 200 mg/kg body weight of S. macrocarpon leaf extract while Group E received 400 mg/kg body weight. The regimen was also to assess the effects of variations in dosages. Experiment lasted for 28 days and the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were excised and fixed in formal saline; then processed using the Haematoxylin and Eosin method. Specific effects of S. macrocarpon include alterations of cell morphologies and loss of cells at the higher doses. There were also evidences of alterations of the cerebral histoarchitecture and the neuropil. Results showed that the extract at all dosages had deleterious effects on the brain tissue and the gravity of effects increased with the dosage.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of Hamelia patens on selected Clinical isolates and verify its use in Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of Microbial infections.
Study Design: This is an experimental study involving the extraction of crude substances from the leaves of Hamelia patens using Ethanol, Methanol, Petroleum ether and water; Preliminary Phytochemical screening, Susceptibility testing and determination of the Minimum Inhibitory/bactericidal Concentrations.
Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in the Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka between January and June 2014.
Methodology: The leaves of the plant were pulverized and active principles extracted. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis was done using standard methods. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were evaluated using agar diffusion and broth dilution techniques in accordance with standard methods.
Results: The result of the preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Glycosides, Saponins, Steroids, Phlobatannins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids and Phytosterols. The extracts showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity ranging from 7 mm to 44 mm against the isolates used. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacterial isolates to all the extracts used while Candida albicans was more susceptible to the extracts than the Aspergillus niger among the fungal isolates. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranged from 12.5 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml among the test organisms, while the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) ranged from 25 mg/ml to >100 mg/ml. Ethanolic extract was the most effective antimicrobial agent when compared to the other three extracts.
Conclusion: Hamelia patens has shown potent antimicrobial activity in vitro, thus could possibly serve as a source of antimicrobial for the treatment of infections caused by the organisms used in the study.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: Various studies have been conducted to investigate the antimicrobial properties of honey from different parts of the world. To date; no extensive studies of the antimicrobial properties of Sahara honey (SH) on urogenital microorganisms have been conducted. The objectives of this study were to conduct such studies and to compare the antimicrobial activity of SH with Manuka honey (MH).
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the experimental laboratories at Pharmacognosy and Api-Phytotherapy Research Laboratory, Mostaganem University, Algeria, between April to May 2015.
Methodology: Several unifloral SH and MH were analyzed to determine their total phenolic, color and antimicrobial capacities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was used to measure phenol content. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the honey samples: agar-well and disk diffusion assay. The honey samples were tested without dilution, and at 50 and 25% (w/v) dilution.
Results: The means of the total phenolic contents of SH and MH were 82.8±0.23 and 143.5±0.62 mg/100 g honey as Gallic acid equivalent, respectively. Initial screening with the agar-well and disk diffusion assay demonstrated that undiluted honey had greater antimicrobial activity against all isolates tested. The zones of inhibition values of SH and MH against different strains ranged from 15 to 27.5 mm and 16.5–24 mm respectively. In addition, honey showed inhibition zone larger toward entire isolates when mixed. This is the first report on antimicrobial effect of SH against urogenital microorganisms.
Conclusion: This work demonstrates the potential of Sahara honey is a very good trend in the treatment for polymicrobial infections.