Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Effect of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) Obtained From Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

M. Umar, I. B. Mohammed, J. O. Oko, I. Y. Tafinta, A. A. Aliko, D. Y. Jobbi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/26783

Aim: The research study aimed to extract Cymbopogon citratus leaf using various solvents with view to determine the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts on some selected microorganisms.

Methodology: The cold maceration and agar well diffusion technique were employed to assess phytochemical properties and the antimicrobial potency of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) leaf extracts against selected bacterial pathogens using different solvents; ethanol, chloroform, and acetone. All the extracts were subjected to standard phytochemical qualitative screening for the presence or absence of various primary or secondary metabolites. The susceptibility test of the plant extracts on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were done using the agar well diffusion method. Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin and Erythromycin were used as controls. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBCs) were determined in three concentrations; 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml of each extract.

Mean zone of inhibition was used to measure the antimicrobial potential of leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli respectively.

Results: Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, carbohydrates, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, and phytosteriods were detected except glycosides and phenol that were absent in the acetone and chloroform leaf extracts. The ethanol leaf extract showed antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 100 mg/ml, and intermediate antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml against all isolates tested. Acetone and chloroform leaf extracts recorded inactivity against E. coli and S. aureus respectively.

Conclusions: The results of preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts revealed the presence of phytochemicals which could be used as medical regimens. Lemongrass has demonstrated antimicrobial properties which could be harnessed for the control of pathogens tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Active Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Properties of the Extracts of Xylopia aethiopica Root and Stem Bark

Gabriel Adeyemi Francis, Omoniyi Ahmed Olalekan, Uleanya Kelechi Ogochukwu, Akemegoh Eshiokhede

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/28514

The use of plants to prevent and cure diseases traditionally has been a common practice all over the world even with no scientific evidence of why they have been used. Xylopia aethiopica is one of such plant known to be a medicinal plant of great repute in West Africa in the treatment of various diseases. In this study, phytochemical constituent and antimicrobial activities of the stem bark and root extracts of Xylopia aethiopica were investigated. Results obtained showed the presence of some phytochemical compounds known to be biologically active and therefore aid the antimicrobial potency of the plant material. The antimicrobial inhibition of the crude extracts of these plant parts compare quite well with the commercial antibiotic drugs used as standard reference. The results suggest that the pure form of the bioactive compound (s) responsible for this activity may prove to be a better antimicrobial drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Piper guineense Effects on Testicular Histoarchitecture

O. C. Giwa, J. O. Ochei, J. O. Owolabi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/26885

Piper guineense is used as spice and herb, particularly to enhance libido. P. guineense has effects on penile erection and copulatory behaviour which are controlled by androgens. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of consumption of P. guineense leaves on testicular histoarchitecture. The effects of P. guineense ingestion, in form of pelleted formulation, on the histoarchitecture of the testis of adult male Wistar rats were studied. Thirty adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups labelled A-F. Group A animals served as the control and they were fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Dried and powdered P. guineense leaf was added to the feed of the rats in Groups B, C, D, E and F in graded proportions. Based on the well monitored and properly evaluated rate of feed consumption, the proportion of P. guineense in the feed for Groups B, C, D, E and F gave approximate daily dosage of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The regimen design was to observe the possible influence of dosage variations.  Animals in Groups B, C, D, E, and F were given the pelleted food formula for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed after treatments and the testes were excised and processed using the Eosin and Haematoxylin staining histological technique. Photomicrographs for histological analyses were taken with the aid of the digital Accuscope Photomicrographic Set. Results on the testicular histoarchitecture show that Piper guineense consumption affected testicular structural integrity and gametogenesis. Higher doses caused disruption in seminiferous tubules epithelium and general ultra structure. Though P. guineense had been reported to increase libido and frequency of male sexual activities, results from this investigation showed that its consumption might not enhance or improve male fertility.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Screening of the Leaf Extracts from Gardenia ternifolia (Forest Gardenia) for their Anticancer Activity

Damien S. Tshibangu, Selvaraj Divakar, Muthiah Ramanathan, Govindarajan G. Syamala, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Virima Mudogo, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Pius T. Mpiana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/28348

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the crude extracts of Gardenia ternifolia (Oliv.) in human prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

Study Design: Successive extractions of Gardenia ternifolia leaves were performed, using petroleum ether 60-80ºC, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol 80%. The cytotoxicity of these extracts on human breast cancer (MCF-7), prostate cancer (PC-3), and non-cancerous rat skeletal muscle (L6) cell lines were analyzed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was performed at PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, India, from 01 September 2014 to 30 December 2014.

Methodology: The powdered leaves of Gardenia ternifolia were dried and kept at room temperature (27ºC) and then extracted by maceration. Successive extractions were followed starting with petroleum ether 60-80ºC, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol 80%. Furthermore, the extracts were concentrated under reduced pressure and dried at room temperature. Anti-cancer activities of the various extracts were assayed by MTT assay on MCF-7, PC-3, and L6 cell lines.

Results: For MCF-7 cell lines, the total extracts showed moderate CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) of respectively 21.62 µg/mL and 45.44 µg/mL for chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. The CC50 of petroleum ether 60-80ºC, methanol and methanol 80% crude extracts were found to be more than 100 µg/ml. For PC-3 cell lines, the CC50 of the extracts were of 9.66 µg/ml, 24.47 µg/ml and 92.10 µg/ml, respectively for chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The CC50 of the crude extracts of petroleum ether 60-80ºC and methanol 80% were more than 100 µg/ml.

Conclusion: The chloroform extract of Gardenia ternifolia showed better cytotoxicity effect in PC-3 than MCF-7 cell lines, comparatively to the other extracts. This could be due to the different secondary metabolites extracted with the chloroform solvent. Therefore, it could be suggested that Gardenia ternifolia could be developed as a possible therapeutic agent against human prostate cancer.


Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Lipid Profile of Adrenaline-induced Hypertensive Rats Administered with Aqueous Extract of Arachis hypogeal Testa

A. Y. Kabiru, B. I. Muhammad, M. H. Garba, M. M. Ndamitso, Y. Garba, F. M. Madaki

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/26861

Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity globally. Dyslipidemia is an index of hypertension that has also been identified as a risk factor in the development of coronary heart diseases.  

Aim: This research set to investigate the potency; validate the traditional claim on the use Arachi hypogeal testa in the management of hypertension in experimental rats.

Methodology: Thirty Albino Wister rats were grouped into six of five rats each. Hypertension was induced in Groups I to V animals by administering them with 0.1ml adrenaline intraperitoneally for six consecutive days. The rats in groups I to III were administered 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg body weight of Arachis hypogea testa extract respectively for seven days. Group IV was treated with a standard hypotensive drug – Propanolol, to serve as positive control, while rats in Group V were administered normal saline to serve as negative control and group VI rats were not induced with adrenaline but administered normal saline as placebo.  

Results: The extract at a dose of 800 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant effect on hypertensive rats compared to the standard drug-Propanolol in correcting the dyslipidemia caused by adrenaline - induced hypertension after seven days of treatment. There were significant increases in total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, and Triglyceride levels in the group treated with 800 mg/kg body weight and the drug (P = 0.05), while the LDL-Cholesterol level for animals in the same groups were significantly lowered (P= 0.05) compared to the higher values obtained for the induced, untreated control group. 

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated the ability of the aqueous extract of A. hypogea testa to significantly decrease LDL-cholesterol and increase HDL-cholesterol concomitantly in adrenaline-induced hypertensive rats, thus justifying its use in Nigerian traditional medical practice to manage hypertension.