Open Access Short Communication

The Use of Medical Simulation in Cupping Therapy Training: A Novel Idea from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Abdullah M. Al-Bedah, Tamer S. Aboushanab, Meshari S. Alqaed, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Jamal A. Basahi, Ahmed T. El-Olemy, Mohamed Khalil

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/30027

Simulation has been successfully used since antiquity in medicine, especially for life support training programs. Part-task trainers allow trainees to acquire primary professional skills in a safe environment rather than to be trained for the first time on human beings. Cupping therapy is a traditional modality used to benefit humankind since 1550 B.C and mentioned in the famous Egyptian Ebers Papyrus. In Saudi Arabia, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative  Medicine (NCCAM) in the Ministry of Health  made  pre-licensed cupping training  a mandatory requirement for licensing the practice of wet/dry cupping. There is also a demand for standardization of ancient healing methods like cupping therapy to reduce its side effects and to help traditional medicine integration with modern medicine. Therefore, NCCAM developed a novel idea for cupping training. In the pre-licensed cupping training course provided by NCCAM, our research team found a novel method by using artificial skin for part task-trainer simulation in cupping training field. It will help in developing both trainees' clinical skills, and providing prolonged clinical training hours without stress or any harm that can happen to the volunteers undergoing wet or dry cupping. The NCCAM cupping simulation uses skin model surgical sutured skills training module, brand and Model Number: 45345. Ultimately artificial skin use helps trainees effectively apply cups and use surgical blades in a realistic clinical scenario. Using artificial skin in Complementary and Integrative Medicine training will help cupping trainers by improving and standardizing training programs and allow for safe practice of integrative healthcare. This paper is calls for pre- and post-training design studies to evaluating trainees’ knowledge, attitude, practice, satisfaction, and improved skills in the use of Part-task trainer in cupping therapy training.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Knowledge of Traditional Medicine Policy by Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs) of Nasarawa State, Nigeria: A Pilot Study

Adeola Jegede, Jemilat Ibrahim, Henry Egharevba, Grace Ugbabe, Ibrahim Muazam, Yemisi Kunle, Karniyus Gamaniel

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/29249

Aim: The effective implementation of traditional medicine policy has been recommended by the World Health Organisation as a way of addressing some of the challenges facing Traditional Medicine practise in many countries. This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of Traditional Medicine Practioners in Nassarawa State, about Nigeria’s Traditional Medicine Policy and other issues of concern towards provision of evidence based information to support the promotion of the traditional medicine practise and its integration into national health care delivery system.

Study Methodology, Place and Duration: Pre - tested study questionnaire and consent forms were employed. Familiarization visits to the selected study sites to introduce the study to the community to have their buy in and understand their cultural norms carried out. Administration of questionnaire, data collation and analysis were later done. The study was conducted at Lafia and Keffi, both in Nasarawa state in June 2013.

Results: The result indicated 38% of respondents were aware of the existence of the Traditional Medicine Policy document while 59% were not. 43% of those aware did not know the content of the policy, while 57% had a faint idea of what the policy was about. On adverse drug reaction, 58% of respondents got feedback from their patients while 38% did not with only 17% of the TMPs referred patients with adverse drug reaction to hospital. However, none of the TMPs reported the reactions to the national regulatory agency with 70% not registering their products with the regulatory agency as required by the policy. Many areas of the policy requiring attention of the TMPs were not been implemented.

Conclusion: There is need for greater awareness of the existence of the policy for improved implementations while the document which is due for review needs the input of the practitioners during the review process.


Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Toxic Effect of Melanthera scandens Leaf Extracts Using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Test

I. E. Daniel, U. S. Ekam

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/29842

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicity of the crude extracts of Melanthera scandens leaves extracts using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) test in order to substantiate the ethnopharmacological uses of this plant in the treatment of different illnesses.

Methodology: Extractions of the dried powdered leaves of Melanthera scandens by maceration was carried out using ethanol and distilled water. All the extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening using standard methods while the toxicity of the extracts was evaluated using Brine Shrimp lethality assay. The percentage lethality (mortality) of the brine shrimp were evaluated in six different concentrations; 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5 and 31.25 µg/ml and the lethal concentration LC50 for 50% mortality of brine shrimp after 24 h of exposure to the extracts was determined.

Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins and cardiac glycosides in both extracts. However, tannins and flavonoids were present in the aqueous extracts while phlobatanins and terpenes/steroids were detected in the ethanol extract. The Brine Shrimp lethality assay revealed that ethanol and aqueous extracts were effective against brine shrimp nauplii with LC50 of 173.78 µg/ml and 331.13 µg/ml respectively. It was also observed that maximum mortalities took place at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml whereas least mortalities were at 31.25 μg/ml concentration.

Conclusion: Results of the phytochemical screening indicated that bioactive phytoconstituents were present in this plant and that the ethanol extract showed better toxicity against brine shrimp with LC50 value 173.78 µg/ml when compared to aqueous extract with LC50 value of 331.13 µg/ml. As a result of this, ethanol extract may be considered significantly active and have the potential for further investigation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Euphorbia heterophylla L. in Sprague Dawley Rats

Elemo Olubunmi Olajumoke, Oreagba Ibrahim, Akinyede Akinwunmi, Nicholas Viola

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/29520

Aims: The present study, aim to investigate the acute toxicity of Euphorbia heterophylla leaf (EHL) aqueous extract.

Study Design: Female Sprague Dawley Rats were divided into five experimental groups consisting of four EHL treatment groups (50 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg) and control   group. The animals received their respective treatments once orally, observed for 14 days and sacrificed.

Place and Duration of Study: Food technology Department, Federal Industrial Institute of Research Oshodi (FIRRO), Nigeria, between 16th May 2016 and 31st May, 2016.

Methodology: Healthy female Sprague Dawley rats (80-100 g) were used. Weights of the animals were recorded before and after EHL extract administration. The feed consumption pattern, relative organ weight, hematological parameters, clinical biochemistry and histology of the liver were carried out.

Results: There was a significant decrease (p< 0.001, p< 0.01) in mean weekly percentage increase in body weight  of rats that received 50 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg in either weeks of treatment, although there was no significant change in the food consumed. The relative weight of the liver, kidney and brain significantly increased (p< 0.05) especially at 2000 mg/kg. There was also a significant increase in hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (HB) at 50 mg/kg (p< 0.05) and 150 mg/kg (p< 0.001). However, red blood cells (RBC) (p < 0.05), platelets (PLT) (p< 0.001) and white blood cells (WBC) (p< 0.05) significantly decreased mostly at 2000 mg/kg. There was significant elevation in either aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) or alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg. Moreover, EHL caused mild inflammation or portal congestion in all treatment groups.

Conclusion: EHL possess toxicity potentials clinically, especially at higher doses and safe use of the plant extract is recommended in regards to its common traditional use.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Plants Used as Herbal Tea in Tanzania

Okumu Ochanga, Musa Chacha

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/30263

Aim: This study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of Rhus vulgaris, Sphaeranthus bullatus, Osyris lanceolata, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Acacia nilotica and Tylosema fassoglensis plants used as herbal teas in Tanzania and antibacterial synergic effect when combined with Cymbopogon citratus.

Study Design: In vitro antibacterial assay was employed to determine Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC).

Methodology: Pulverized plant materials were sequentially extracted using dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and distilled water. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured for antibacterial activity against gram negative bacteria using 96-well micro dilution method.

Results: The highest antibacterial activity with MIC value of 0.19 mg/mL was exhibited by Camellia sinensis against Salmonella typhi. About 3.7% of the extract exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC value of 0.3906 mg/mL whilst the remaining extract exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.781 to 25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella kisarawe, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella oxytoca. Thirty percent of the tested extracts exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC values below 1 mg/mL indicating that they are potential antibacterial drug leads according to Rios and Recio (2005). The antibacterial activity of combined extracts of C. citratus and herbal teas revealed both antibacterial synergic and antagonistic effects.

Conclusion: The current study established that herbal teas can be consumed not only as refreshment but also as a remedy for Gram negative bacterial infections. It is therefore recommended that when herbal tea is consumed as a remedy, incorporation of C. citratus should only be necessary when it induces synergistic effects.