Open Access Case Study

Case Report: Ear Acupuncture Therapy for Psoriasis

Maria Lucia S. G. Jorge, Sandra Silvério-Lopes, Lirane Carneiro-Suliano

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/30288

Psoriasis is an inflammatory chronic disease affecting both genders, approximately 2-3% of the world population. Although there are different clinical forms of psoriasis, the most common type is Psoriasis vulgaris. It presents skin patches typically red, itchy and scaly and different levels of severity and extension, established clinically by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Because of these facts, there are many types of interventions focused on your treatment, looking for effectiveness and safety. The immunomodulatory effect of acupuncture has been proven experimentally in the control of inflammation and analgesia, however there are few studies that evaluate the ear acupuncture as treatment in autoimmune diseases and its pathological processes. Six patients with different degrees of PASI were treated with ear acupuncture using the points: Shemen, Kidney, Sympathetic Nervous System, Occipital, Adrenal, Allergy, Anxiety, Local Point, Hives and Tension for fourteen weeks or until symptoms disappeared. These cases showed that ear acupuncture therapy can be effective in the treatment of psoriasis at different stages. While the patients in the early stage of symptoms, even if was relapse, respond quickly to treatment, it was observed the clinical response of a patient with severe erythematous psoriasis (PASI 25.8), resistant to other treatments, significantly regressed after 14 weeks (2.4 PASI). The results indicate the importance of the development of a case-control design, to confirm the indication of this kind of therapy to Psoriasis vulgaris.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Phytochemical Constituents and Smooth Muscle Relaxation Activity of Various Herbal Plants in Myanmar

Phyu Phyu Myint, Myint Myint Kyi, Saw Hla Myint, Daw Hla Ngwe

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/29005

The leaves from Ageratum conyzoides L., Aegle marmelos Correa., Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze, and Mimosa pudica L. plants, reputed in folk medicine in Myanmar for their value as an anti asthmatic remedy, were selected for this study. These leaves were carried out to investigate the phytoconstituents and smooth muscle relaxation activity in both normal and histamine-induced guinea-pig. The compounds namely stigmasterol, myristic acid, palmitic acid, 9-hydroxy nonan-2-one and kaempferol from A. conyzoides; β-sitosterol and N-2-[4-(3´-methyl butoxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide from A. marmelos; palmitic acid, stigma-5,22,25-trienen-3-ol, hispidulin, pectolinarigenin and stigmasterol glucoside from C. indicum and 1-methylene-1H-indene and γ–sitosterol from      M. pudica leaves could be isolated.  In vitro screening on the alcoholic and aqueous extracts revealed the smooth muscle relaxation activity in the order of C.indicum > A. conyzoides > M. pudica > A. marmelos leaves.  Maximum dose for all extracts except A. marmelos was found to be 2 mg L-1 bath concentration. Isolated compounds exhibited anti-asthmatic effect in the order of stigma-5, 22, 25-trienen-3-ol > hispidulin > pectolinarigenin> stigmasterol glucoside > N-2-[4-(3´-methyl butoxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide > stigmasterol> kaempferol.  These results might supply the scientific evidence for smooth muscle relaxation activity of the leaves for the treatment of bronchial asthma in traditional herbal medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Southeastern Nigerian Grown Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract

I. C. Ezeigbo, O. R. Ezeigbo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/30018

Herbal medicine is based on the premise that plants contain natural substances that can promote health and alleviate illnesses. The plant kingdom represents a rich store house of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has shown immense potentials of medicinal plants in various traditional systems. The aqueous leaf extract of M. oleifera, obtained during the dry season (October, 2015) from the Southeastern Nigeria, was subjected to qualitative and quantitative screening for chemical constituents using standard procedures. The result showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, carotenoids, phenols and tannins. The proximate analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates (57.71±0.01%), protein (16.09±0.02%), fats (2.84±0.02%), crude fiber (9.11±0.01%), moisture (4.08±0.04%) and ash (10.06±0.04%). The mineral constituents showed nitrogen (6.03±0.02 g/100 g), calcium (3.09±0.01 g/100 g), magnesium (0.04±0.03 g/100 g), potassium (2.6±0.02 g/100 g), phosphorus (0.48±0.04 g/100 g), zinc (0.09±0.00 g/100 g), copper (0.06±0.03 g/100 g), iron (0.82±0.21 g/100 g) and sulphur (0.92±0.06 g/100 g). The chemical compounds found in the leaf extracts of M. oleifera grown in Southeastern Nigeria have good pharmacological properties. In Nigeria, the plant is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection, fungal infection, diabetes, anti-inflammation, sexually-transmitted diseases, malnutrition and diarrhoea. This finding validates the claims of M. oleifera as possessing nutritional and ethno-medicinal properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ficus capensis Thunb Leaves

Doris Akachukwu, Rosemary Izunwanne Uchegbu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/29851

Aims: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents of the ethanol leaf extract of Ficus capensis using GC-MS, its antimicrobial and in vitro antioxidant activities.

Study Design: The study was designed to identify the phytochemicals present in Ficus capensis, to test the inhibitory ability of the plant extract on human pathogens and to ascertain its antioxidant activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. Imo state and Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia. Abia state, between June to November, 2013.

Methodology: The phytochemicals from the stem of Ficus capensisThunb were extracted with ethanol and subjected to GC/MS analysis and the identification of compounds was done by comparing spectrum of the unknown component with the spectrum of the known components stored in the NIST library. The antibacterial activity was performed by filter paper disc diffusion technique. The antioxidant activity of the extract was tested using DPPH and FRAP assays.

Results: The results of the analysis revealed that ethanol extract of Ficus capensis contains twelve compounds with n- Hexadecanoic acid forming the bulk of the oil (40%). Other compounds identified include: glycerin, 4-(2, 6, 6-trimethylcyclohexa-1, 3-dienyl) but-3-en-2-one, 3-Acetoxy-4-cyano-2, 5-dimethylpyridine, tetradecanoic acid etc. The ethanol extract inhibited all the tested organisms S. aureus, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and E. coli though not to a high extent. The antioxidant activity of the extract increased with increasing concentration of the extract. The optimum activity was observed at 200 µg/ml.

Conclusion: The constituents of this plant suggest its varied medicinal uses in ethno-medicine. Further research is needed to determine the possible mechanism of action of these phytoconstituents.


Open Access Review Article

Native Vietnamese Medicinal Plants with Anti-atopic Dermatitis Activity: A Systematic Review

Do Hoang Thu Trang, Hoang Le Son

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2016/30578

Aims: Medicinal plants have always been highly valued as an accessible traditional treatment for atopic dermatitis in Vietnam. Accordingly, this review aims to assemble and discuss plants with validated anti-atopic dermatitis potency in the country, putting a great emphasis on the practice of phytomedicines and the development of plant-based products for dermatologic conditions. Existing concerns and future perspectives are included to ensure comprehensiveness of the overview.

Methodology: This review is a systematic compilation of published in vitro studies, clinical trials and case studies on the effectiveness of single plant extracts in alleviating atopic dermatitis that can be found in Vietnam.

Results: 39 publications presenting 31 plant species were collected in total. Preparation of plant extracts and route of administration varied slightly between the studies. Root and leaves are plant parts that were most commonly investigated (25.00% and 22.50%). Disease symptoms were mostly induced on NC/Nga mice (61.54%) using sensitizers like 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (28.57%), 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (25.71%) and Dermatophagoides farinae body extract (28.57%). Effects of plant extracts on epidermal/dermal thickness, IgE serum level, infiltration of immune cells and hyperproduction of inflammatory cytokines were intensively investigated in the collected studies.

Conclusion: This review highlights the enormous potential of medicinal plants as an effective and easily accessible alternative therapy against atopic dermatitis. The use of these still needs to be further supported by scientific evidence and controlled by strict regulations to ensure good practice and stable development of phytomedicines.