In Ghana, majority of the populace use herbal medicines for the treatment of typhoid. Though these herbal medications are widely acclaimed to be effective, there is a lack of validation of their efficacy with little or no information on the susceptibility patterns of the prevalent Salmonella enterica serovars to the numerous herbal medicines used for treating typhoid fever on the Ghanaian market. This research therefore investigates 16 anti-typhoidal herbal medicinal preparations for sale in the Ghanaian market and determines their activities against S. typhi, S. enteriditis, S. paratyphi, S. havana and S. arizona in the agar well diffusion assay. This study also screened the preparations for the presence of chloramphenicol by HPLC-UV analysis. Results showed that 38% of the herbal preparations sampled were active against all the five strains of Salmonella, 13% against three strains, 19% against 2 strains, 4% against 1 strain and 25% showed no activity against any of the tested strains. We concluded that 70% of the anti-typhoidal preparations were active against 2 to 5 strains of Salmonella and hence might be effective in the treatment of most typhoid infection due to its broad spectrum of activity. No extraneous chloramphenicol was detected to be present in the preparations.
The present study evaluates the chemical constituents and nutrient composition of leaf extracts of Carica papaya and Vernonia amygdalina. The chemical constituents were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The constituents of C. papaya leaf extract showed twenty constituents, dominated by oleic acid (28.98%) with molecular weight of 282, with the least compound Trans-Geranylacetone (0.17%), with molecular weight of 194. However, V. amygdalina leaf extracts contained sixteen constituents, dominated by 9-octadecenoic acid (35.18%), with molecular weight of 282, and Methyl tridecanoate (0.45%) as the least compound. The proximate analysis showed significantly (P<0.05) higher quantities of ash, crude protein and crude fibre content in C. papaya, when compared with V. amygdalina. In the anti-nutrient analyses, C. papaya had significantly (P<0.05) higher amounts of oxalate, phytate and flavonoid as compared with V. amygdalina. Evaluation of mineral composition showed higher amounts of magnesium and zinc in V. amygdalina except in copper content, compared with C. papaya. This study revealed the potential compounds present in the plant samples for their acclaimed biological activities in traditional phytotherapy.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of ethanol leaves extract of Anthocleista vogelii and Cocos nucifera water on haematological parameters in wistar rats.
Study Design: Haematology.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Delta State University, Abraka Delta State, Nigeria, between July and August, 2015.
Methodology: Thirty rats divided into six groups of five were used for the study. Doses of 10 ml/kg of Cocos nucifera, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg of Anthocleista vogelii, and 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of Anthocleista vogelii combination with Cocos nucifera (1:1) were administered to the animals, while the control group received normal saline (10 ml/kg). The experimental animals were administered the extracts orally once daily for 2 weeks according to their body weights, after which blood samples were obtained for haematological analysis.
Results:Anthocleista vogelii and Cocos nucifera extracts showed significant (P<0.05) increase in RBC, WBC, and PCV values.
Conclusion: The ethanol leaves extract of Anthocleista vogelii and its combination with Cocos nucifera water has positive haematopoietic effects.
The Phytochemical and antibacterial activities of Calotropis procera Leaf Organic Fractions were tested against vancomycin and methicliin resistant bacteria isolated from wound patients in Ondo State Specialist Hospital. The bacterial isolates used are; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus pyogenes. Agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of the extracts on resistant bacterial isolates. Ethanol extract had the highest zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with 16.03 mm and 12.05 mm respectively while cold and Hot water extracts recorded the lowest zones of inhibition values of 3.54 mm and 5.53 mm respectively against Klebsiella pnuemoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the n-Hexane extract had no inhibitory effect against Streptococcus pyogenes and Proteus mirabilis. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, saponin, terpenoids, cardic glycoside and phenols. Findings of this research indicate that the leaf extracts of Calotropis procera posses antibacterial potency which will assist in the preliminary treatment of wound infections, most especially because of its high inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus.
The effect of prolonged consumption of virgin coconut oil (VCO) diet on anxiety was assessed in CD1 mice using the Open field (OF), Elevated plus maze (EPM) and Light/dark box (LD box) tests. Thirty male CD1 mice (28.4 - 32.5 g bw) divided into 3 groups (n=10 each) were given normal rodent chow (control), 5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w) VCO diet respectively and water ad libitum for 23 days. The OF test showed increased grooming (p< 0.05) in both 5% and 20% VCO groups versus control, and higher Freeze frequency in both VCO diet groups versus control, with the 20% diet group being higher than that for 5% diet group (p<0.05). Stretch attend postures (SAP) were similarly higher in the 5% and 20% diet groups (P<0.05) versus control, and higher (P<0.05) in the 20% VCO diet versus 5% VCO diet group. In the EPM test, the open arms duration was lower (p< 0.05) in the 20% VCO diet group. SAPs in the EPM test were higher in both 5% and 20% VCO diet groups (p< 0.05.), with that for the 20% VCO diet group being higher than that for the 5% VCO group (p< 0.05). In the LD box test, SAP was significantly higher in 20% VCO diet group versus control (p<0.05). All behaviours scored in the three tests indicate increased anxiety in the VCO diet groups. Thus long-term consumption of virgin coconut oil diet increased anxiety-related behaviour in the mice, with the 20% diet causing a greater effect.