Open Access Short Research Article
Aims: The seed oil composition of Baphia massaiensis seeds was determined using 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques. The seed oil was also screened for antimicrobial activity.
Study Design: The study was designed to determine Baphia massaiensis seed oil fatty acid composition and antimicrobial activity.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, between June 2012 and July 2014.
Methodology: The Baphia massaiensis seed cotyledons powder (29.2 g) were extracted by Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane/ 1-propanol. The seed oil (3.12 g) was esterified to FAMEs using dry methanol. The percentage composition of fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) in the seed oil of B. massaiensis was determined using 1H NMR and GC-MS techniques. The antimicrobial screening was carried out using agar well diffusion method.
Results: The 1H NMR method showed the oil composition to be 20% ω-3 fatty acids, 11% mono-unsaturated, 60% di-unsaturated and 9% saturated fatty acids. Based on GC-MC analysis, saturated fatty acids composition was 12.2% and unsaturated fatty acids were 87.8% of the total FAMEs. The major constituents of B. massaiensis seed oil FAMEs were linoleic acid (C18:2; 49.0%) and linolenic acid (C18:3; 36.7%) methyl esters. The FAMEs were active against E. coli, S. aureus and B. subtilis with 10-16 mm inhibition zones.
Conclusion: Linoleic acid (49.0%) and linolenic (36.7%) methyl esters were the major components of Baphia massaiensis FAMEs.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest infections during pregnancy and results in perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. For bacterial UTIs, the causative agents have remained virtually the same although with variations in individual prevalence. There has been an increasing resistance by these bacteria to the commonly available antibiotics which has become a serious clinical problem.
Aim: This work was carried out to determine the prevalence of bacterial uropathogens and their antibiotics susceptibility profile among pregnant women attending a tertiary maternity clinic in northern Nigeria.
Methods: A total of 350 pregnant women aged between 21-55 years were enrolled for this study. Mid-stream, clean catch urine samples were cultured on standard bacteriological culture media. Significant bacteriuria was determined by a presumptive test method. Smears of the urine samples were Gram stained and viewed under the oil-immersion objective, and the numbers of bacterial cells per oil-immersion field per millilitre of urine were noted. The resulting isolates from cultures were morphologically and biochemically characterized based on standard procedures and were further confirmed using MicrogenTM GND-ID kits. The antibiotics susceptibility was done using the modified Kirby-Bauer disc agar diffusion method. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used for statistical analyses in this study.
Results: Out of 350 urine samples analysed, 83 (23.7%) had significant bacteriuria. The age range of 31-40 years recorded the highest prevalence of 32.5%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent (29%) followed by Enterococcus species (22%) and the least uropathogen was Streptococcus pyogenes (3%). Isolated bacteria were resistant to at least two antibiotics with Pefloxacin (55.6%) being highly resisted followed by Ciprofloxacin (50.0%) and Cotrimoxazole (45.6%). Amoxicillin (15.2%), Chloramphenicol (21.1%), Ofloxacin (21.7%), and Amoxicillin –clavulanic acid (29.4%) were more effective against the isolates.
Conclusion: The 23.7% prevalence of bacteriuria and resistance profile of uropathogens to some antibiotics tested in this study is a serious cause for concern. This study showed that uropathogens isolated showed resistance to Pefloxacin (55.6%), Ciprofloxacin (50.0%), and Cotrimoxazole (45.6%) with Stapylococcus aureus showing resistance to more number of antibiotics tested. Routine urine culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing is recommended in pregnancy to identify bacterial causes of urinary tract infections for prompt attention and treatment to avoid complications.
Open Access Original Research Article
Eighty rats, randomly selected, were divided into three (3) treatment groups: pre-, co- and post-treatment; consisting of 6 sub-groups each (5 rats per sub-group); baseline, normal saline (2 ml), α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight), and 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, or 800 mg/kg body weight Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract (TCAE). Animals in the pre-treatment group were intoxicated with a single dose (20 mg/kg) of doxorubicin (DOX) intraperitoneally followed by 7 days oral administration of normal saline, α-lipoic acid or TCAE; co-treatment group were co-administered 2.86 mg/kg body weight of DOX with either normal saline, α-lipoic acid or TCAE orally for 7 days while post-treatment group were administered normal saline, α-lipoic acid or TCAE orally for 7 days and on the 8th day, intoxicated with a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Animals were sacrificed (pre- and post-treatment groups on the ninth day while the co-treatment group on the 8th day), blood samples collected by retro-orbital plexus, kidneys and spleen samples harvested for biochemical and histopathological investigations. A significant elevation in plasma urea and creatinine concentrations with perturbation in plasma electrolyte (K+, Na+, Cl-, HCO3-) concentrations were observed resulting from DOX intoxication. DOX caused a significant increase in activities of splenic ACP, LDH, γ-GT and ALP activities. A significant increase in renal and splenic concentrations of H2O2 generated, MDA and PC; XO, MPX and NOX activities while the concentrations of GSH, AsA and α-TOC; and the activities of SOD, CAT, GST and GPX were significantly reduced following DOX intoxication. Treatment with TCAE significantly attenuated renal and splenic tissue damage and pro-oxidant markers precipitated by DOX intoxication while restoring normalcy to tissue antioxidant markers. Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract presents a potential candidate in the prevention of renal and splenic injury and dysfunction related to doxorubicin intoxication.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: This study was aimed at determining the use of herbal medicine among adult residents in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria.
Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study design.
Place and Duration of Study: Calabar metropolis, Cross River State Nigeria between June 2016 to August 2016.
Methodology: A 20-itemed, semi-structured questionnaire was used to generate data from 208 respondents which were drawn using multi-stage random sampling technique. Data generated were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.0) and results were presented in tables and charts. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to test the four hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
Results: The results obtained in this study showed that out of 200 respondents, 128 (64.0%) reported to have used herbal medicine/herbs in the past 12 months, 102 (51%) six months, 86 (43%) three months and 75 (37.5%) one month preceding the time of survey. While 78 (35.5%) respondents reported that the herbal medicine/herbs used was self-made, 55 (25%) herbal vendors and 30 (13.6%) parents constituted major sources of herbal medicine for other respondents. Respondents highlighted that 44 (20.1%) treatment of diseases, 39 (17.8%) food supplements, 31 (14.1%) laxative and 24 (11.0%) skin care were their reasons for the use of herbal medicine. Reasons for preference to herbal medicine than other types of medications as indicated by the respondents were predominantly because herbs are 68 (37.8%) very affordable, 50 (27.8%) very effective and 38 (21.1%) readily available. Out of 161 respondents who reported to have used herbs/herbal medicine, only 24 (12%) reported to have experienced side effects of which 9 (37.5%) dizziness, 6 (25%) watery stool, 4 (16.7%) abdominal pain and 3 (12.5%) vomiting were the most highlighted.
Conclusion: A pharmaceutical regulatory body should be instituted to monitor the activities of herbal practitioners and ensure that herbal medical products are standardized, quantified and safe for consumption.
Open Access Review Article
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, commonly called ‘pink lady’, is employed in West and Eastern African folkloric medicine for managing a number of infections including dysentery, cough and sexually transmitted infections. The review aims at highlighting the traditional benefits, ethno-medical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological importance of the plant.
Materials and Methods: Excerpta Medica database, Google Scholar, Springer and PubMed Central, were the electronic databases used to search for and filter primary studies on Dissotis rotundifolia.
Results: This summary of relevant pharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological data from primary studies on D. rotundifolia gives a telling indication of its potential therapeutic benefits as a chemotherapeutic agent and possibly as a source of compounds with contraceptive potential.
Conclusion: This concise review on D. rotundifolia will be relevant in identification of areas of further research with the focus of identifying biologically active compounds which hold prospect in therapy.