Open Access Original Research Article

Piper guineense Leaf Extract Elevates Serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone Level in the Diestrus Phase in Non-Pregnant Female Albino Wistar Rats

E. O. Agbai, P. C. Onyebuagu, C. J. Njoku, J. Ekezie, C. C. Eke, C. O. Nwanegwo, A. C. Nwafor

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/31664

Piper guineense plant has been reported to stimulate reproductive hormone secretion in males; although no known research in females, it is commonly used in the making of postpartum tonics that contract uterine muscles in order to expel clots after birth. Clomiphene citrate was employed in order to ascertain degree of fertility induction and test the effect of methanol extract of Piper guineense leaf on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and oestrogen in non-pregnant wistar albino rats.

Twenty four non-pregnant wistar albino rats on metestrus phase of the estrous cycle were selected and randomly divided into four groups A - D. Group A served as control. Group B rats were administered 1 mg/kg/day of clomiphene citrate only while Group D rats were administered 1 mg/kg/day of clomiphene citrate plus 200 mg/kg/day of Piper guineense leaf extract. Groups C rats received 200 mg/kg/day of Piper guineense leaf extract only. All administration was via oral route and the experiment lasted for 14 days.

At the end of the experiment, results showed Groups A, B and C rats were in diestrus phase while group D in proestrus. Results also showed statistically significant increase (P < 0.05) in plasma FSH in Group C and Group D compared to control group A and Group B. LH and oestrogen were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in Groups B and D compared to control group A and Group C, although LH was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Group D compared to Group B. LH and oestrogen levels remained unchanged in Group C compared with group A.

The results revealed that extract caused an increase in FSH production and steadied LH and oestrogen levels in the serum while combination of extract and clomiphene citrate caused an increase in FSH production as well as significant reduction in LH and oestrogen. FSH remained unaffected in clomiphene citrate treated rats only. The estrous cyclic changes remained unaffected in extract treated rats.

The findings suggest that Piper guineense leaf extract caused a significant rise in FSH without altering LH, oestrogen and the estrous cycle in female rats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Flavonoids and Biflavonoids of Amentoflavone Class as Potential Psychoactive Drug Leads

Abeer Moawad, Mohamed Hifnawy

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/32856

Aims: There are several reported interactions between amentoflavone and CNS receptors especially GABA receptors and also reported interaction between flavonoids and opioid receptors. The current study determines other related compounds of amentoflavone, hinokiflavone and other flavonoid monomers with potential CNS activity.

Study Design: Natural and semisynthetic derivative of biflavonoids of amentoflavone and hinokiflavone class and several flavonoid monomers were screened for their binding ability to CNS receptor and neurotransmitter transporters using the Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Methodology: Natural and semisynthetic flavonoid derivatives were subjected to binding assays with 44 receptors and transporters. Only compounds showing ≥50% binding inhibition in the primary assay were subjected to secondary binding assay.

Results: In the secondary binding assay; significant binding with rat benzodiazepine receptor, dopamine transporter, GABAA, norepinephrine transporter and Sigma 2 receptors were observed. (+) Catechin and sakurantin showed significant binding with dopamine transporter (Ki= 1 and 1.6 nM respectively) compared to the positive control (GBR 12909; Ki= 1 nM) in addition to the biflavonoid 7,7″,4‴-trimethyl-2,3-dihydroamentoflavone (16517) which showed activity at Ki= 172 nM and we present the first report of its 13C NMR data. Semi synthesis afforded the new derivative 7,7″,4‴-trimethyldihydrohinokiflavone but it was inactive towards the screened receptors and neurotransmitter transporters.

Conclusion: Studying the structure-activity relationship revealed that methylation of amentoflavone decreased their ability to bind with rBZP, GABAA receptor and NET except for 7,7″,4‴-trimethyl-2,3-dihydroamentoflavone which was the most active among biflavonoids toward DAT. On the other hand, methylation of naringenin created new binding capability of sakurantin. Configurations of the chiral center at C-3 and hydroxylation pattern at ring B in flavan-3-ols greatly affect binding with dopamine transporter. Dihydrohinokiflavone and its trimethyl derivatives were completely inactive. Our study reveals new biological activity of some common flavonoids that may be promising drugs leads.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity of Bridelia atroviridis (Arasado)

Oluremilekun Olabisi Sokefun, Oluwole Olusoji Eleyowo, Mary Oluwatoyin Avungbeto

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/29305

Aim: Bridelia atroviridis methanolic leaf extracts was assessed for antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Pure and Applied Science, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos- Nigeria for the period of three months between September and November 2015.

Methodology: Antioxidant compounds lycophene, β-carotene, total phenolic and total flavonoid content were evaluated using the method described by Nagata and Yamashita, aluminum chloride colorimetric assay and Folin-Ciocalteau assay respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity method was utilized in assessing the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract while the antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar diffusion technique.

Results: The Bridelia atroviridis methanolic leaf extracts assessed in this study possessed significant amount of antioxidant compounds lycophene, β-carotene, total phenol and flavonoids. The extract exhibited antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radicals in a dose dependent pattern with IC50 of 51.24 µg/mL compared to vitamin C with IC50 of 41.67 µg/mL.

Conclusion: Bridelia atroviridis methanolic leaf extracts is a potential source of drugs with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Wound Healing Potentials of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Mangifera indica L. in Wistar Rats

O. Bamidele, J. T. Kolawole, A. O. Ayoka, L. D. Babatunde, O. O. Onaseso, G. T. Adedeji

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/32409

Aim of the Study: Since scientifically proven investigations on wound healing has not been adequately carried out on Mangifera indica leaves, the present work was therefore conducted to evaluate the wound healing potentials of aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera indica in Wistar rats.

Study Design: Animal study model of wound healing.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical and Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria. Between October 2015 to June 2016.

Materials and Methods: Twenty four Wistar rats weighing between 160 -200 g were used. The rat were grouped into 4 groups with 6 rats in each group. Group 1 rats had no wound on them .Group 2 rats were treated topically with Normal Saline .Group 3 rats were treated topically with povidone iodine. Group 4 rats were treated topically with aqueous extract of Mangifera indica. In all the animals, the wound was induced using a scalpel blade.

The animals after 21 days of treatment were sacrificed and their blood samples, tissue (skin) were collected, processed and examined for haematological and histological analysis.

Results: The results showed that aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) decreased thrombin time, clotting time and bleeding time. However, wound contraction was significantly higher in experimental animals treated with aqueous leaf extract of M. indica when compared to control, Normal Saline (NS) and standard povidone iodine. These findings were further confirmed by histological examination of granulation tissue with a lesser number of chronic inflammatory cells, decreased oedema and increased collagenation in the rats treated with M. indica than the control.

Conclusion: Therefore, Mangifera indica leaves seem to be promising in haemostasis and wound healing.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Anticholinergic Properties of Methanol Leaf Extract of Arachis hypogea on Isolated Rabbit Jejunum

R. C. Ibeh, G. S. Aloh, G. C. Ikechukwu, U. I. Edward, F. O. Azubike-Izah, S. N. Ijioma, E. U. Ejiofor, C. J. Njoku

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/32661

The acute toxicity and parasympatholytic properties of methanol extract of Arachis hypogea leaves were studied in vitro and in vivo. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, fats and oils, phenols and lignins. Acute toxicity test showed that the extract was not toxic up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. Tonicity studies using rabbit jejunum showed a significant (p<0.05) relaxation effect on that smooth muscle. At 14.28 µg/ml, 29 µg/ml and 57.14 µg/ml, the extract inhibited in vitro acetylcholine-induced contraction of the rabbit jejunum by 84.21%, 86.84% and 89.47% respectively, which compared closely with the effect of atropine (90.21% at 0.28 µg/ml). In conclusion, the results of this study strongly indicated that the extract of Arachis hypogea leaves is safe at the tested dose and possess smooth muscle relaxant properties which may be of value in the management of diseases associated with excess activity of the parasympathetic arm of the autonomic nervous system.