Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Wireless telecommunication sources working with frequencies ranging from 0.9 to 2.5 GHz are still increasing rapidly. Among these are digitally enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) phones which have been considered to emit only a weak radiation when an active DECT base and handset are separated from each other.
Aim of the Study: Prompted by this background this study investigated the cellular effects of DECT base radiation and its possible compensation by a specially designed device, named memonizerCOMBI Standard A.
Materials and Methods: Connective tissue fibroblasts (L-929) were exposed to the radiation of an active commercially available DECT base with a frequency of 1.885 GHz for 24 hours ± memonizer COMBI beneath the incubator. Unexposed cells in another incubator placed with a distance of about 10 m in the same laboratory rooms served as corresponding controls. Cell vitality was checked by enzymatic measurement of the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases by XTT.
Results: The results clearly demonstrate that exposure to DECT base radiation caused a significantly reduced cell vitality by 47.6 ± 7.4% (mean value ± standard deviation; P = .01; Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). Reduction in cell vitality was accompanied by marked morphological changes in the cells such as intracellular vacuolization, rounding and detachment which are similar to alterations observed during oxidative stress by the presence of reactive oxygen species. Reduction in cell vitality after DECT base radiation exposure was compensated by use of memonizerCOMBI by two-thirds yielding a reduction in cell vitality by only 17.5 ± 8.1% (mean value ± standard deviation; P = .01 vs. exposed cells without memonizer; Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test).
Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure of cultured connective tissue cells to DECT base radiation at a frequency of 1.885 GHz causes a significantly reduced cell vitality which can be extensively compensated by using a memonizerCOMBI device.
Open Access Original Research Article
The use of plants in treating diseases traditionally was found to be part of culture of the inhabitants in the study area. It was shown that the greater number of respondents (61, 50.8%) preferred the use of herbs when compared to the number who used synthetic (32, 26.6%) medicines. A total number of 50 botanicals belonging to 30 families were documented. Members of the family Fabaceae had the highest number (9) of plant species, followed by Euphorbiaceae with five (5) plant species, Cucurbitaceae (3 plants) and Rutaceae (3 plants) respectively. Leguminosae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Anacardiaceae, Poaceae and Bignoniaceae had two species each, while other families had only one species each. Azadiracta indica and Alstonia boonei were high on the frequency of citation. These plants were mostly used for the treatment of malaria and bodypains. The botanical names, common names, family names, forms of plant, plant part used and diseases treated were identified. Tree was found to be the most used plants followed by shrubs, herbs, underground stem, grass, climber, creeper and weed. Leaves were the plants parts frequently mentioned. It was revealed that 34 plants out of all the 50 plants were common. The methods of preparation and mode of administration revealed that plants were prepared traditionally with the combination of inert materials such as camphor, local gin or alcohol. Deforestation that lead to depletion of the plants and lack of government recognition were among the constraints to utilization of the traditional knowledge. Efforts on the development of cheaper medical services in the state should be more focused.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Cupping therapy (Al-Hijamah) is a traditional therapy, supported and practised by people around the world since ancient times. Cupping therapy related to complementary and alternative medicine is associated with controversial, false beliefs and misconceptions.
Objective: This study aimed at exploring controversial beliefs and conceptions about cupping therapy among healthcare professionals, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 241 healthcare professionals was carried out from January to June 2016. All participants requesting license for practicing cupping therapy underwent one week Al-Hijamah training course at National Center for Complementary and Alternative (NCCAM). Prior to training course, all subjects completed a 23-item predesigned questionnaire related to controversial beliefs and misconceptions concerning cupping therapy. All participants gave written informed consent.
Results: Healthcare professionals who participated in the study (n=241) were 93 physicians, 56 physiotherapists, 61 nurses and 31 other specialists. Saudi participants represented 46.1%. 60.6% were adult males with mean clinical experience of 13.0±9.37 years. "Al-Hijamah gets rid of bad blood" was the commonest controversial belief reported by 68.1% of participants. A proportion of participants (31.5%) reported "Al-Hijamah is absolutely safe" and "Al-Hijamah is effective in the treatment of all diseases". The least controversial beliefs reported by 12%, 8.7% and 2.9% of participants were "Cupping can be used for all patients and all diseases”, "Cupping like a blood donation is not different" and "The scarification of cupping (in wet cupping) must be deep", respectively.
Conclusion: The explored controversial beliefs and misconceptions related to cupping therapy may impact knowledge, attitude and practice of cupping practitioners. Therefore, all healthcare professionals need to be regularly exposed to a training course targeting these beliefs and misconceptions concerning cupping therapy prior to giving them license for practicing this traditional modality. Continuing research in cupping mechanisms of action is another prioritized area which can provide scientific explanations underlying its efficacy and outcome together with alleviating its false beliefs and misconceptions.
Open Access Review Article
Aim and Objective: The aim of this review was to provide a detailed concept to the researchers on antifertility activity of several plants inhibiting male and female fertility and may be developed into contraceptives. Despite of many medicinal plants have been claimed to prevent fertility, only few plants were so far been investigated for their antifertility activity.
Materials and Methods: An extensive bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing various classical text books, scientific journals, consulting worldwide accepted databases for providing suitable information on antifertility medicinal plants. Plant species traditionally used as contraceptives, abortifacients, emmenagogues, spermatogenics were considered as antifertility agents.
Results: Overall 233 plant species belonging to various families, traditionally used as antifertility agents in both males and females has been incorporated in this review. The various plant parts used in fertility regulation includes leaves, fruits, roots, bark, stem etc.
Conclusion: In conclusion, it is clear that medicinal plants play an important role as antifertility agents. Despite of various commercially available oral contraceptives in the market, herbal antifertility agents shows promising output by minimizing the number of adverse drug properties. Current research towards traditional medicine is growing rapidly because of its safety and less cost consumption.