Open Access Original Research Article

Antimalarial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Root Bark of Salacia nitida L. Benth in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

Barine I. Nwiloh, Joyce O. Akaninwor, Augustine A. Uwakwe

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/32655

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic extract of root bark of Salacia nitida in mice infected with Plasmodium bergei.

Methods: Prophylactic and curative antimalarial activity of ethanolic extract of root bark of S. nitida was studied using sixty-six healthy mice infected with chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei. 430 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract was given orally infected mice in the prophylactic test for 11 days, while 280 – 580 mg/kg body weight/day of extract was orally administered to the malaria infected mice in the curative test for 5 days, against 4 mg/kg body weight/day of artesunate drug. The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic extract of root bark of S. nitida on the parasites was determined.

Results: The ethanolic extract of root bark of S. nitida at a dose of 430 mg/kg body weight/day caused 89.77% inhibition in the levels of parasitaemia in the prophylactic test and 33.78% - 88.45% inhibitions of parasitaemia levels in the curative tests.

Conclusion: The results showed that the ethanolic extract of root bark of S. nitida possessed significant (p < 0.05) antimalarial activity, thus supporting its traditional use in the treatment of malaria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Assessments of Three Fractions from Methanol Extract of Spathodea campanulata Beauv. Leaves

Charles E. Umenwa, Emmanuel O. Ojah, Dorcas O. Moronkola, Julius K. Adesanwo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35156

Aims: To screen hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of the methanol extract of Spathodea campanulata leaves for secondary metabolites, to isolate and to characterize constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction using GC-MS and IR and to determine the antioxidant activities of the three fractions.

Methodology: Methanol extract of Spathodea campanulata leaves was obtained by cold extraction, and partitioned into hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions. Phytochemical screenings of the fractions were carried out using standard procedures to identify the class of constituents present in each of them. Ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatographic separations by gradient elution, and isolates were TMS (Trimethylsilyl) derivatised and characterized by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Antioxidant content was also evaluated on the three fractions using 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method. Percentage of inhibition and IC50 values were obtained for each fraction.

Results: Phytochemical screenings revealed presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponin, resins, phenol, cardiac glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and terpenoids in the three fractions in varying concentrations. Alkaloids, resins, phenol and cardiac glycosides were found to be intense in the three fractions while phylobatannin was found to be absent in all the three fractions. Three compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction were characterized based on MS and IR spectral interpretations as palmitic acid, ethylamine and caffeic acid. Percentage of inhibition of the three fractions indicates that they have substantial antioxidant activity with the standards at high concentration of 250 to 1000 μg/mL. The hexane fraction has the highest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 178.46 μg/mL when compared to other fractions.

Conclusion: This paper reports phytochemical constituents and high antioxidant activity (at concentrations of 250 μg/ mL and above) of the African tulip tree (Spathodea campanulata) when compared to the standards. This has not been earlier reported in literature, our results supports its wide ethno-medicinal applications.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Skin Diseases in Bosso Local Government, Niger State, Nigeria

A. Adamu, I. F. Oibiokpa, D. Musa, A. Inobeme

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35036

Traditional medicine practitioners TMPs have developed means of treating skin and soft tissue infections by using plant extract. In this study, four medicinal plants which are used for treating skin diseases were analysed, to determine their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. Extraction and phytochemical screening was done using standard analytical procedures. The antimicrobial assay was carried out using agar well diffusion method. Methanol extract of Mitrarcapus villosus, Psidium guajava, Senna spectabilis and Anogeisus leocarpus contained tannins, phenols, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, stereoids and terpenoids. However, anthraquinones was present in only Psidium guajava. Phlobatanins was absent in only Senna spectabilis. alkaloids was absent in only Mitrarcapus villosus. All the plant extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Candida albican, Salmonella typhii, Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Although Senna spectabilis extract shows no antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The extracts of Mitrarcapus villosus showed the highest activity against Candida albican (26.00 mm), Salmonella typhii (32.00 mm) and E. coli (15.00 mm) while Anogeisus leocarpus showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (18.00 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.00 mm). Extracts of Psidium guajava was also found to have the highest activity against B. subtilis (37.00 mm). In conclusion, the antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava and Mitrarcapus villosus was comparable to standard drugs. All the plant contained important phytochemicals of therapeutic significance and also possessed antimicrobial activity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Concentration in Rats Administered Calabash Chalk

Alli, Lukman Adewale, Nafiu, Mikail Olugbemiro

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35305

Introduction: Geophagia is the act of consumption of earth’s materials such as clay, soil or chalk-like stones. It is a common and sometimes compulsive practice among pregnant women in Eastern part of Nigeria. The study aims at investigating the effects of calabash chalk (geophagic clay) on serum lipid profile and electrolytes in rats in order to understand the possible effects of calabash chalk in human. 

Place and Duration of Study: Research work was carried out in department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; between March and August, 2015.

Methods: Processed calabash chalk (PCC) and unprocessed calabash chalk (UCC), weighing 400 g each was pulverized separately into powder and sieved. The sieved powder (200 g of UCC and PCC each) was mixed with 1 L of distilled water and stirred continuously to form a suspension, which was filtered. The filtrate was evaporated to obtain 20 g of processed and 15 g of unprocessed calabash chalk respectively. The required doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight were prepared using distilled water and administered to rats daily for twenty-eight days. Lipid profile and biochemical parameters were analyzed from blood collected from animals on 29th day.

Results: The results obtained, showed that both processed calabash chalk (PCC) and unprocessed calabash chalk (UCC) at all the doses, produced significant reduction on lipid profile. There was significant increase in bilirubin level at 500mg, while albumin and urea concentration were significant reduced at 150 mg/kg b.w when compared with the control.

Conclusion: In view of the above results, ingestion of calabash chalk could cause imbalance in lipid and electrolyte profile which may constitute a serious health risk especially among pregnant women.


Open Access Original Research Article

Gastroprotective Mechanisms of Entandrophragma angolense Extract against Indomethacin-induced Gastric Ulceration in Rats

O. O. Olaniyi, A. T. Salami, F. S. Oluwole

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/34445

Aims: The mechanisms of action of the methanolic extract of Entandrophragma angolense in male Wistar rats were investigated using indomethacin ulcer model.

Study Design: Laboratory experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan in 2016.

Methodology: Twenty five adult male Wistar rats weighing between 180-200 g were grouped into five groups (n=5) and treated as follows: Control (Group I), had normal rats’ pellets with water given ad libitum. Groups II to IV were administered graded doses of the extract (200, 400 and 600) mg/kg for 28 days while group V received Omeprazole (positive control) for 28 days. Thirty six female mice (20-25 g) were used for acute toxicity study. Experimental ulcer was induced using indomethacin. Hematological parameters were analyzed with an automatic blood analyzer. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Superoxide dismutase were measured by spectrophotometry method.

Results: The acute toxicity test showed LD50 to be 275.42 mg/kg body weight. The group pre-treated with 200 mg/kg Entandrophragma angolense showed a significant reduction in the Mean Ulcer Score when compared with control group showing a percentage protection of 72.41% (P=0.05), significant increase in Superoxide Dismutase activity and significant reduction MDA level when compared with the control group (P=0.05). Finally, this same group had a significant increase in Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandins E2 concentrations when compared with the control group (P=0.05).

Conclusion: Entandrophragma angolense extract mediates its antiulcer effects via production of antioxidant enzyme {Superoxide dismutase}, stimulates the release of nitric oxide and the production of endogenous prostaglandins (PGE2).