Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Compositions of Dialium guineense Willd. Leaf, Stem-bark and Fruit Essential Oils

D. O. Moronkola, O. F. Kunle, O. Olaoluwa, C. Ogukwe

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35129

Aims: We report chemical composition of three essential oils from leaf, stem bark and fruit parts of Dialium guineense [Fabaceae], which we studied. D. guineense is a Nigerian fruity plant utilized widely in treatment of jaundice, ulcer, eye and heart problems, as antimicrobial and anti-malaria in ethno-medicine, also as dietary supplement. Its fruits, which are edible, possess sweet to sour astringent flavorings enjoyed in beverages, for quenching thirst and refreshing.

Methodology: The volatile essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation, using an all-glass apparatus adapted to British Pharmacopeia specifications and gave good yields of 0.06 to 0.10%, which we studied using GC and GC-MS. 

Results: Twenty out of twenty-five compounds, representing 92.91% of the leaf oil were characterized, while eighteen and thirteen out of twenty-one and eighteen compounds were identified in stem-bark and fruit oils, representing 85.65% and 81.44% of each respectively. Most abundant compounds were cis-3-hexenyl butanoate in leaf, and trans-δ-9-octadecenoic acid in both stem-bark, and fruit essential oils.

Dominant classes of compounds (%) in leaf oil were esters (56.86), terpenoids (18.27) and acids  (11.20); stem bark had mostly acids (57.41), esters (19.82) and terpenoids (3.05); most abundant in fruit oil were acids (65.79), hydrocarbons (8.56) and esters (3.42). Acids and esters dominated the 3 essential oils of D. guineense, with appreciable amounts of terpenoids and hydrocarbons in the three oils.

Conclusion: We present chemical compositions of three essential oils of D. guineense Willd a Fabaceae, which has not been reported in literature. Presence of high oxygenated compounds (esters, acids, alcohols and terpenoids) in the three oils, are important quality determining factor, as well as responsible for flavoring and pharmacological properties, some of these have been highlighted here. Results of our study reveal the rich chemical compositions of D. guineense essential oils, which have long been utilized for traditional purposes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Cupping Therapy (Al-Hijamah): Healthcare Professionals' Controversial Beliefs Before and After Training Program, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ahmed T. El-Olemy, Abdullah M. Al-Bedah, Mohammed A. El-Olemy, Asim A. Hussein, Mohamed Khalil, Tamer S. Aboushanab, Ibrahim S. Elsubai, Meshari S. Alqaed, Mohammad Hamza, Dalal S. Al-Dossari, Sara O. Salem, Naseem A. Qureshi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35536

Background: Cupping is a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) technique that has been widely used by healthcare professionals and the people since ancient times.

Objective: This study assessed controversial beliefs and conceptions concerning cupping (Al-Hijamah) among health professionals before and after training program.

Methods: Healthcare professionals (n=439, 226 physicians, 108 physiotherapists and 105 nurses) were exposed to an intensive training program conducted by National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The participants completed a 23-item self-administered questionnaire before and after an intervention program. The questionnaire was reliable for the assessment of controversial beliefs and conceptions about cupping therapy.

Results: Male participants constituted 64.7% and Saudi subjects were 38.3%. The rest of the non-Saudi participants had 16 different nationalities. All participants stated one or more controversial beliefs before intervention (range = 1-16) and post-intervention (0-4) with a variable proportion of participants revealing inconsistent reduction or modifiability in controversial beliefs and conceptions about cupping therapy. A proportion of participants (65.2%) specified no controversial beliefs after intervention. The belief that improved most was "Hand washing is the key component of infection control" stated by 61.3% of participants.

Conclusion: Using targeted training programs, most of healthcare professionals' false beliefs about cupping (Al-Hijamah) therapy are modifiable. Further high quality research are needed to explore the false beliefs of cupping therapy among healthcare professionals and practitioners together with availability of standard clinical practice guidelines of cupping therapy at clinical settings around the world. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder Suspension on the Pharmacokinetics of Amodiaquine in Rats

Olanrewaju Samuel Olawoye, Babatunde Ayodeji Adeagbo, Oluseye Oladotun Bolaji

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35960

Aims: Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is commonly used as food plant, food supplement and as medicine in most African countries. With increasing acceptance and use of M. oleifera as food and medicine, the possibility of co-administration of MO with conventional drugs, especially antimalarials, also increases. Hence, this study investigated the effects of M. oleifera leaves (MO) on the pharmacokinetics of amodiaquine (AQ) in male albino Wistar rats. 

Methods: 180 male Wistar Albino rats, weighing 180-220 g, randomly divided into 3 groups of 60 rats each (6 rats per each time point) were used for this study.  In the control group (CT), a single dose of amodiaquine (10 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats while in the co-administration group (CA), the same dose of AQ was given concurrently with MO.  In the third group, the pre-treatment group (PT), each rat received MO for one week and on the 8th day received the MO dose along with AQ (10 mg/kg).  Blood samples were collected and the plasma concentrations of AQ and its metabolite, desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), were determined using a validated HPLC method.

Results: Compared to the CT group, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of AQ in the CA and PT groups decreased by 28% and 53.42% respectively while for DEAQ, a 59.2% reduction in Cmax was observed in CA but there was a 36.0% increase in the PT group.  The plasma exposure (AUCtotal) of AQ significantly increased (P <0.001) by about 318.2% and 144.6% in CT and PT respectively, while for DEAQ there was a 28.8% reduction in AUCtotal in co-administration, but a significant increase (P<0.001) of 242.4% was observed after pre-treatment.

Conclusion: The study established pharmacokinetic interaction between AQ and MO in rats with the effects being more on the absorption of AQ during co-administration buton both absorption and elimination of AQ after pre-treatment.


Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity of the Plant Murraya koenigii Linn (Curry Leaf) in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Ismat Ara Dahlia, Md. Badrul Islam, Shahed Zaman, Md. Asadul Islam, Md. Abdul Jalil, Nazim Uddin Ahmed, Md. Abdur Rahim, Md. Mahmudul Hassan Mondol, Ali Ahsan Muzahid, Murshed Hasan Sarkar

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35993

Aim: The use of herbal medicine is becoming popular day by day due to toxicity and side effects of allopathic medicines and hence the present study was carried out to assess the in-vitro DPPH free radical scavenging potential of the methanolic extract and their different fractions and aqueous extracts of Murraya koenigii Linn leaves.

Materials and Methods: Considering the medicinal importance of the plant Murraya koenigii Linn (Curry leaf), antioxidant activity (AC), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), of different fractions of methanolic extract (DIA-ion resin adsorbed fraction, chloroform, Ethyl acetate and petroleum ether) of M. koenigii were investigated.

Results: Among the fractions, DIA-ion resin adsorbed fraction showed the highest total antioxidant activity with absorbance 2.320±06 and petroleum ether fraction showed the lowest total antioxidant activity with absorbance 1.944 at 100 mg/ml concentration. The TPC were found to be ranges from 13.285 to 17.52 mg GAE/g while highest amount of TFC (16.65 mg CatE/g) was found in different extracts of leaves. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of different extracts of leaves was also measured and their activity was observed in the following order: DAF>PE>EE>CE, with IC50 values from 15.53 µg/ml to 24.62 µg/ml.


Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Status of Animal Species Used by Indigenous Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Ogbomoso, Oyo State

J. Ebele Ajagun, E. Caesar Anyaku

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/36018

Aim: To document the indigenous knowledge of fauna species used in traditional medicine practices and to establish their conservational status.

Study Design: A questionnaire guided survey of the traditional uses of fauna species by the indigenous people of Ogbomoso, Oyo State.

Place and Duration of Study: Bioresources Development Centre, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria between March and December, 2016.

Methodology: A total of 43 participants were interviewed during the survey and constituted 4 hunters, 19 traditional medicine practitioner (TMP) and 20 trado-herbal traders (THT) as the study population. Animal species utilized for different traditional preparations, factors affecting the availability of these species all year round and respondents’ knowledge on conservational issues were recorded.

Results: 55 animal species (both wild and domesticated) were identified as being used for various traditional purposes. Twenty-two are listed as threatened in the Control of International Trade in Endangered Species listings. It also revealed 15 endangered 2 critically endangered, 2 vulnerable and 6 near threatened based on the International Union for the Conservation of nature red list. Hence, 18 fauna species are either threatened with extinction now or would be in the near future. The survey also revealed the lack of knowledge of the respondents on the ethics and or goals of conservation. However, it confirmed the declining availability of these vital raw materials for traditional medicine practices.

Conclusion: The wide acceptance of fauna-based traditional preparations for the health care needs of the vast population has resulted in the depletion of available animal species.