Open Access Original Research Article

Attenuation of the Effect of 100 mg Aspirin on Platelet Aggregation in Regular Kava Drinkers

Khatri Vaishali, Christi Ketan, Khan Sabiha, Moulds Robert

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/36237

Background and Purpose: Numerous interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs have been documented. While the significance of many interactions is uncertain, several others may have serious clinical consequences. Kava (Piper methysticum) is an ancient crop of the western Pacific. Kava preparation and extracts are very popular in the Pacific and the potential remains for herbal supplements like kava to interact negatively with other drugs like aspirin in vivo which needs to be thoroughly explored. Management of cardiovascular disease in Fiji includes anti-platelet drugs, especially aspirin which is prescribed routinely.

Aim: Our study aimed to assess the effect of two different doses of aspirin (100 mg and 300 mg) on the degree of platelet aggregation induced by collagen amongst healthy non kava drinkers and kava drinkers. The objective of this study was to examine potential effect of concomitant aspirin on platelet aggregation (PA) in kava drinkers.

Methods: Platelet aggregation was measured using whole blood platelet aggregometer (Chronology Corp) using collagen as an aggregating agent in two main ethnic groups, Fijians and Indo-Fijians, before and after the intake of a single dose of 100 mg and 300 mg of aspirin. The Fijian and Indo-Fijian volunteers were divided into three groups, non-kava drinkers (NKD), occasional-kava drinkers (OKD) and regular-kava drinkers (RKD).

Results: The results were found to be non-significant in NKD, OKD and RKD Fijians and Indo-Fijians before aspirin intervention, the intake of kava did not have any effect on platelet aggregation. Overall PA remained within the normal range (15-27 Ω). After a single dose of 100 mg of aspirin, a large number of participants in both ethnic groups of RKD were found to have decreased aspirin sensitivity. The decreased aspirin sensitive participants had their PA within the normal range (15-27 Ω) even after administration of aspirin. All the participants showed a reduction in PA (<15 Ω) after the administration of 300 mg of aspirin. However, the difference was statistically non- significant (p>0.05). The most important finding of this study is that 100 mg aspirin had significantly less inhibitory effect on PA in both Fijian and Indo-Fijian RKD (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our studies show a reduced effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation in regular kava drinkers (RKD).


Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Tuberculosis Treatment and Its Related Symptoms

J. I. Joseph, M. H. Shagal, H. Mukhtar

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/35097

The study is aimed at evaluating some medicinal plants used traditionally to treat tuberculosis and related symptoms. The stem-barks from 10 plants species were prepared using methanol by Soxhlet and was partitioned with n-butanol and water. The extracts were evaluated for the presence of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms using agar well and micro dilution assay. The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some of phytochemicals such as tannins, phenols, saponins, glycocide, alkaloids, flavonoids and steriods The quantitative estimation revealed that Anogeissus leiocarpus has the highest percentage of alkaloids (10.50%), tannins (4.97%), saponins (11.32%) and flavonoids (15.8%). Ficus trichopoda recorded the lowest percentage of alkaloids (0.45%), tannins (0.43%). Saponins and flavonoids are the lowest in Bombax constantum. Echinaceae angustifolia has the highest percentage of steroids (0.29%) and lowest is for Anogeissus leiocarpus (0.13%). The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract showed good activity against the microbial strains. The zones of inhibition ranged from 17 – 23 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 17 – 24 mm for Bacillus subtilis, 16 – 30 mm for Escherichia  coli, 12 – 34 mm for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 13 – 23 mm for Candida albicans. For n-butanol extract the zones of inhibition were found to be between 3 – 10 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 4 – 11 mm for Bacillus subtilis, 11 –12 mm for Escherichia coli, 8 mm for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 7 – 9 mm for Candid albicans. For the aqueous extracts, the zones of inhibition were found to be between 19 – 25 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, 11 – 22 mm for Bacillus subtilis, 10 – 33 mm for E. coli, 13 – 34 mm for Klebsiella pneumonia and 10 – 20 mm for Candida albicans.  The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the tested plant extracts ranged from 1 - 5 mg/ml in all the extracts. The results from this study indicate that these plants are a viable potential source of products active against pathogenic microorganism.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Prunus avium Extracts against Selected Human Pathogens

A. M. Oyetayo, S. O. Bada

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/37272

Aim: This research was carried out to determine the phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of leaf and stem bark ethanol extracts of Prunus avium L. against selected human pathogens.

Methodology: The methods used included mechanical pulverization of the air-dried plant materials and solvent percolation extraction for 72 hrs. The resulting crude extracts were stored in sterile airtight McCartney bottles and stored in the refrigerator until use. After, they were screened for the presence of phytochemicals. Furthermore, the plant leaf and stem bark extracts were assayed for antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi. The minimum inhibitory concentrations as well as time of kill of the extracts against the test pathogens was also determined.

Results: The results showed that flavonoid, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and phenols were present in the stem bark extracts while saponin was absent in the leaf extract. Furthermore, in the antimicrobial activity test, the plant extracts revealed varied activities along concentration gradient as higher concentration was observed to correspond to wider zones of inhibition. E. faecalis showed the highest susceptibility to both extracts at all the concentrations tested showing 11.00±0.00 and 16.33±0.01 mm zone of inhibition for leaf and stem bark extracts respectively at 200 mg/mL while S. typhi showed the least susceptibility to the extracts recording no inhibition against leaf extract at all the concentration used albeit showing 7.00±0.00 mm inhibition zone against stem bark extract of the plant. The lowest MIC was found in stem bark extract against K. pneumoniae (3.125 mg/mL), while the highest was recorded in leaf extract against S. pneumoniae (75 mg/mL). The stem bark extracts showed the least time required to completely kill the pathogens, taking 15 minutes to completely inhibit K. pneumoniae followed by E. coli and E. faecalis which took 25 minutes each to be killed. However, the times recorded for the leaf extract to kill these organisms were higher than that recorded for stem bark extracts with S. pneumoniae recording the highest (100 min) exposure time to be killed. The stem bark extract of the plant was more potent against the pathogens than the leaf extract.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that Prunus avium extracts contain biologically active constituents like saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenols which may be responsible for the observed antibacterial activities of the plant against human pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Current Status of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Use in Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia

Abdullah M. Al-Bedah, Naseem A. Qureshi, Omer Abdulaziz Al-Yahia, Abdullah Al-Saigul, Mohammed Aldoghaim, Ahmed T. El-Olemy, Sulaiman Aleidi, Asim A. Hussein, Ibrahim S. Elsubai, Tamer S. Aboushanab, Gazzaffi I. M. Ali, Ahmed H. Almosilhi, Meshari S. Alqaed, Mohammed Khalil

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/36711

Background: Traditional medicine is an ancient nonconventional method of treating a variety of diseases in diverse cultures of the Eastern world, and currently its potential value has been recognized around the world.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) in Qassim province and to determine the users' profile and the most common T&CM therapies used in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of primary healthcare (PHC, n=16) attendees (n=285, response rate=71.3%) using a self-designed reliable questionnaire concerning their sociodemographic variables and T&CM use.

Results: Besides revealing some sociodemographic characteristics and associations with traditional medicine, about 62% of participants used T&CM and 57.5% of participants reported T&CM as part of their indigenous inherited tradition. The main traditional practices including religious and spiritual healings, herbs, cupping (Al-Hijamah), cautery and honey and bee products were used most importantly for the treatment of diverse chronic health conditions by females, the two predictors of T&CM use. Ministry of Health (MOH) should offer T&CM in all public healthcare settings and should regulate its practice in private sector in order to safeguard patient affairs including holistic care and patient-centered medicine.

Conclusion: Traditional indigenous therapies especially culture-based are widely used by PHC patients in Qassim province. The National Survey is needed to draw a more comprehensive epidemiological trend of T&CM use in Saudi Arabia and by extension in other Gulf countries.


Open Access Review Article

Bioactive Agents, Nutraceuticals Potentials, Phytochemistry, and Food Value of Emilia coccinea Leaf: A Review

Viola A. Nwachukwu, Stanley C. Udedi, F. C. Ezeonu, Bartholomew I. C. Brai, Chika Scholastica Ezeanyanaso, Gloria Nwakaego Elemo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/29435

Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don belongs to the family Asteraceae. The members of this family are largely woody herbs or shrubs, a few trees and climbing herbs. Emilia coccinea leaf extracts can play major roles by improving nutritional livelihood especially in the rural areas.  E. coccinea extracts have also been implicated as possible control against chronic diseases such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular conditions all over the world. E. coccinea as a lesser known indigenous plant in Nigeria can be refined to serve as either as health supplements or medicinal herbal formula targeted at treatment of diseases. It is reportedly used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of tumor, inflammation, cough, rheumatism, fever, dysentery, wounds and in preventing miscarriage. The juice of the edible leaves is reportedly used in treating eye inflammations, night blindness, and ear-aches. In terms of Doctrines of signature, its resemblance to the spleen could imply that it may have immune-modulatory potentials for people with defective immune system.  It also resembles the pancreas which is responsible for production of insulin which breaks down glucose. Thus the E. coccinea leaf extracts could have potentials to regulate blood sugar. Previous studies have revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites in the plant (E. coccinea) which are alkaloids, tannin, saponin, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside and lignin and are known as therapeutic agents. Quantitative estimation of the percentage of crude chemical constituents in the Nigerian E. coccinea was 0.92±0.22% of alkaloids, 0.81±0.10% of phenols, 0.96±0.10% of flavonoid, 2.30±0.20% of saponin and 11.85±0.31% of tannin by previous workers. These components are known to be medicinal as well as exhibiting physiological activities in humans. Isolation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid as natural product in Emilia coccinea, has been reported for the first time. The global resurgence of interest in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of human diseases fuelled with rising cost of orthodox drugs, and this is a comparative advantage of natural products to synthetic products, which incentivizes researches on lesser known plants such as E. coccinea. Advance research work on E. coccinea leaf will open an avenue for industrialization in Nigeria through development of different natural/herbal products, functional foods and beverages from the plant that will be easily available and accessible throughout the year. In addition, it will provide a cleaner environment through re-cultivation of such plant and maintenance of greener environment.