Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Carica papaya, Ocimum gratissimum and Solanum torvum under Normal and Osmotic Stress Conditions

Jean-De-Dieu Tamokou, Steve Endeguele Ekom, Abdel Jélil Njouendou, Jules-Arnaud Mboutchom Fosso, Irene Chinda Kengne

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/37418

Background: Infectious diseases remain major threat to human health worldwide despite the availability of antibiotic library in drug stores, because of the emergence of new multi-drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of new effective treatment will help in fighting such infections.

Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of extracts from three Cameroonian medicinal plants as well as the effect of osmotic stress on these activities.

Methods: Antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of Carica papaya, Ocimum gratissimum and Solanum torvum were studied against five Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria under normal and osmotic stress conditions. The phytochemical analysis of these plant extracts was carried out using standard methods. Broth microdilution method was used to assess the antibacterial activities of extracts as well as the effect of stress osmotic (5% NaCl) on these activities.

Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and triterpenes in all tested plant extracts. Flavonoids, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, steroids and saponins were selectively distributed in the extracts. The extract of C. papaya (MIC = 128 - 1024 μg/ml) was the most active followed in decreasing order by O. gratissimum extract (MIC = 512 - 1024 μg/ml), S. torvum leaf extract (MIC = 256 - 2048 μg/ml), and S. torvum fruit extract (MIC = 2048 μg/ml). The antibacterial activities of plant extracts and chloramphenicol increased under osmotic stress conditions while those of amoxicillin decreased under these conditions.

Conclusion: The overall results of this study provide scientific evidence of the antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of tested plants, therefore supporting their traditional use in the wound healing and infected diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Awareness and Uptake among Women of Reproductive Age in Kwara State, Nigeria

Ayobanjo D. Bello, Posi E. Aduroja

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/37224

Aims: To assess Tetanus Toxoid (TT) vaccination uptake and dosage completion among women of reproductive age in Ilorin west Local Government area of Kwara state.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Ilorin west local government, kwara state between Nov 2015 and March 2016.

Methodology: The study involved women of reproductive age between 15-49 years in randomly selected in Ilorin west local government of Kwara state. The instrument was contracted to measure participants’ level of awareness of TT vaccine, uptake of the vaccine and level of completion of vaccine dosage. Data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.

Results: There were 377 women in this study. Majority of respondents (75.6%) were between the age of 26 and 35 years old and more than half (68.2%) were married with a proportion of 45.3% having had more than 3 children. Results from this study revealed a low level of awareness on the dosage of TT vaccine and this was reflected in the 0% uptake of TT4 and TT5 by respondents. Further analysis indicated a significant association between respondents awareness and TT vaccine completion at 82.8% ((F=1811.74; R Square=0.828; P < 0.05). it was also found that uptake of TT vaccine increases with the number of children had, however, non-married and respondents with no children had not started uptake of TT vaccine. Initiation age of TT vaccination among respondents was found to 21 years of age. Findings from this study revealed that respondents’ normative beliefs has a significant association with intention of getting Tetanus Toxoid vaccine (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.014). Results also revealed that there is a significant difference in awareness across the age, marital status and number of children (p ≥ 0.05).

Conclusion: From findings of this study, it is evident that uptake of TT vaccine is poor with 0% uptake of both TT4 and TT5 dosage as respondents stop uptake after child delivery, also, respondents younger than 21 years old have not commenced TT vaccination. It is hereby recommended that TT vaccination be initiated at the secondary school for females older than 15 years old to ensure completion of the vaccination and also increase awareness.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Acute Toxicity, Analgesic, in vitro Antioxidant Studies and GC-MS Investigation of Essential Oil of the Methanol Leaf Extract of Momordica charantia

S. O. Ofuegbe, A. S. Akinrinde, A. A. Oyagbemi, T. O. Omobowale, M. A. Yakubu, A. A. Adedapo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/37049

Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds which play an important role in the healing of various diseases. They are the best sources for chemical ingredients, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents for cure of different diseases. Most medicinal plants possess pharmacological activities (anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal etc.) due to the presence of these phytochemicals in them. In this study, we intend to conduct qualitative phytochemical screening and to quantitatively evaluate the total phenol, flavonols, tannins, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents of the plant, Mormodica charantia. The acute toxicity studies of the methanol leaf extract of M. charantia on mice was conducted to evaluate how safe the plant is in relation to dosage, and this is intended to establish the safety of the plant in mice with reference to OECD guidelines. Furthermore, the analgesic activity of the methanol leaf extract of M. charantia and the free radical scavenging activities of the plant in vitro were demonstrated using various standard procedures. We also intend to profile the major compounds present in the essential oil of the plant understudied using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis. Summarily, this study was aimed to investigate the phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant, as well as the chemical constituents in the essential oil of the methanol leaf extract of M. charantia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sickle Cell Anemia Therapeutic Approach Based on Drepanoalpha®: About 34 Cases

Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Lionel T. Asamboa, Gédéon N. Bongo, Félicien M. Kasali, Viviane B. Feza, K. N. Ngbolua, Pius T. Mpiana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/37350

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical, biological, socio-economic and socio-demographic parameters on sickle cell patients before, during and after the administration of Drepanoalpha®, a nutraceutical used in the management of sickle cell disease in DR. Congo.

Methodology: The 34 selected cases were submitted to Drepanoalpha® for two months and the clinical (jaundice, pallor, physical asthenia, abdominal bloating, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, sensitivity to infections, bone pain, anorexia), biological (hemoglobin and hematocrit) and socio-economic (cost per crisis, number and duration of hospitalization, number of transfusions) parameters were evaluated before, during and after administration.

Results: The results reveal that the use of Drepanoalpha® could probably suppress the clinical expression of hyperhemolysis, as well as other sickle cell disease signs such as jaundice, pallor, splenomegaly and abdominal bloating and also decreased the physical asthenia and anorexia, preventing considered sickle cell disease patients from infections.  Drepanoalpha® significantly increases the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels of all subjects. These results also indicate that considered subjects, mainly the males children with none education level, showed neither intolerance nor adverse effects when taking Drepanoalpha®. Treatment with this Nutraceutical is 13.64 times cheaper than hospitalization.

Conclusion: This could probably indicates that, this nutraceutical can be considered as safe potential candidate in the treatment of sickle cell anemia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Anthocleista djalonesis Fractions and Compounds against HIV-1 Integrase and HIV-1 Protease

Ijeoma Solomon Okoro, Terrumun AmomTor-Anyiin, John Ogbaji Igoli, Muluh Emmanuel Khan, Mbeh Ubanga Eteng

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/36908

Aim: HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is one of the world’s deadliest diseases today. Drug resistance and narrow spectrum of available therapeutics is a main problem during HIV treatment. Therefore, new drugs effective against drug-resistant HIV strains are needed. The aim of this study was to screen Anthocleista djalonensis extracts, fractions and isolated compounds for in vitro anti-HIV-1 Integrase (HIV-1 IN) and HIV-1 Protease (HIV -1 PR) activities.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Organic Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. The period was between March and July, 2016.

Methodology: The ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of the roots of Anthocleista djalonensis and fractions and compounds obtained from column chromatography of acetone extract were screened for their inhibitory activity against HIV -1 Integrase using a non-radioactive ELISA-based HIV-1 integrase assay. The screening was carried out at concentration range of 10-5 -102 μg/ml. The screening for anti-protease activity was performed using a fluorogenic octapeptide substrate, HIV-FRET (1) and a recombinant HIV-1 Protease solution. 

Results: The ethyl acetate and acetone extracts showed inhibitory effects on HIV -1 Integrase with IC50 of 1.3001 ± 0.217 µg/mL and 0.7216 ± 0.0028 µg/mL respectively. IC50 values of 0.0077 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 5.0001± 0.1719 µg/mL, 3.5113 ± 0.3613 µg/mL and 0.0736 ± 0.0005 µg/ml were obtained for chromatographic fractions F-1, F-2, F-3 and F-4 respectively. The compounds Bauerenone, Bauerenol and a mixture of Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol isolated from A. djalonensis had IC50 values of 5.6112 ± 0.8767 µg/mL, 4.8075 ± 0.0732 µg/mL and 0.8916 ± 0.0327 respectively.

Conclusion: Bauerenone, Bauerenol and a mixture of Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol isolated from A. djalonensis showed significant (P< 0.05) inhibitory activities against HIV-1 Integrase. However, there was no activity against HIV-1 protease at 50 µg/mL by the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds.