Open Access Original Research Article

Triterpenoids from Poria cocos and Their Potential In vitro Hepatoprotective Effects

Yihai Wang, Guoqiong Wang, Xiaomin Yi, Xiangjiu He

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/38016

Aims: To isolate triterpenoids from the surface layer of Poria cocos and evaluate their hepatoprotective activities in vitro.

Study Design: Triterpenoids were isolated and identified from the surface layer of Poria cocos. Their effects on alcohol induced-liver injury models were investigated in vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, between September 2013 and December 2013.

Methodology: Triterpenoids were purified by Silica gel, ODS as well as HPLC chromatography and characterized by MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The hepatoprotective effects of the isolated compounds against alcohol induced-liver injury were investigated in L-02 cell line.

Results: Eight triterpenoids were isolated and identified from the surface layer of Poria cocos (1–8), Compounds 2, 3, 6 showed potent protective effects against ethanol-induced injury on L-02 cells.

Conclusion: This study suggests that triterpenoids from the surface of Poria cocos could protect L-02 cells from death induced by alcohol and suitable for alcohol induced-liver injury patients as medicine or functional food, which would be a new candidate for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Practices of Tagabawa Tribe on Selected Medicinal Plants at Barangay Jose Rizal, Sta. Cruz, Davao del Sur, Philippines

Melodie Claire Waay-Juico, Grendelli E. Cortuna, Swift Honesty M. Evangelista, Rico Raphael D. Gatal, Christian Indigo Khan S. Licuanan, Farah Jane C. Tapia

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/38301

Aims: This research gathered information and offered a baseline data for more comprehensive studies on effectiveness of the preparations and the medicinal applications in the Tagabawa community. Moreover, the area is rich in medicinal plants but has no studies documenting the traditional practices so far. The purpose of this study was to determine the traditional medicinal plant used by the Tagabawa tribe in Barangay Jose Rizal, Sta. Cruz, Davao del Sur for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the identified medicinal plants.

Study Design:  Descriptive research method was employed in the study. This design allows the researchers to gather data by using self-made questionnaires that were verified by experts.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Barangay Jose Rizal, Sta. Cruz, Davao del Sur, Philippines. This study was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016.

Methodology: Semi structured interviews were administered among 50 randomly selected informants, with ages between 20 years old to 70 years old after plant collection, which is followed by data recording, documentation, plant pressing, drying and identification of the plant species.

Results: Results showed that there were 47 medicinal plant species being utilized by the Tagabawa Tribe belonging to 36 families. Trees were commonly the source and the parts mostly utilized for treatment were the leaves for decoction and extraction for the preparation of ethnomedicines for drinking. Furthermore, the study revealed 28 plant species having the highest Fidelity Level value of 1.0 with the highest Informed Consensus Factor (ICF) was for dengue (0.925) followed by wounds (0.854) sprain (0.833) and respiratory infections (0.808).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Tagabawa tribe mostly utilizes medicinal plants in treating ailments in their area thus, it indicates the high abundance of medicinal plants in the community. It is further recommended that there is a need to conduct phytochemical and pharmacological studies on the reported medicinal plant species to gain more information about the possibilities of identifying the active ingredients for production of drugs and to conduct studies involving conservation of these medicinal plant species.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Assessment of Selected Antibiotics, Crude Extract of Dalbergia latifolia Leaf and Their Combination on MDR Salmonella enterica Strain

O. T. Jemiseye, P. A. Idowu, T. S. Agidigbi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/39008

Aims: To investigate the susceptibility pattern Salmonella enterica strains to selected antibiotics and extract of Dalbergia latifolia as well as their combinatory effect on (multi-drug resistant) MDR salmonella.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria from October 2012-May 2013.

Methodology: In this study, a total of 11 clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica strains were screened in vitro against five antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxycillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and ceftriaxone) for their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and against methanolic extracts of Dalbergia latifolia leaves. The isolates were also screened in vitro against the combined antibiotics and plant extracts using the agar well diffusion method and their MICs determined. Phytochemical screening was done to determine the secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, a type strain, was used as a reference standard in the identification of the isolates. The isolates were collected across hospitals in South West Nigeria.

Results: All the isolates were multidrug resistance (with each showing resistance to at least two of the antibiotics), with the exception of one susceptible isolate. All the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol (100%), while the highest susceptible numbers of isolates were observed against ceftriaxone (27.27%), 18.18% were susceptible to each of ampicillin and amoxycillin, while 9.09% were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. MIC values ranged from of 30 µg/mL to >100 µg/mL. All the isolates were susceptible to the extracts of Dalbergia latifolia leaves with a zone of diameters equating the CSLI recommendation except for two isolates at a concentration of 25 mg/mL showing lesser activities. The MIC values ranged between 3.125 mg/mL to 75 mg/mL.

Conclusion: The combined antibiotics and plant extracts showed a potentiative and synergistic effects with Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) values ranging between 0.45-0.75. Among the 11 isolates, 4 isolates (36.36%) showed an additional effect to the combined activities of the antibiotics and plant extracts with a reduced MIC value. From the in vitro study, the diameter of the zone of inhibition of the combined halved-MICs (MIC*) of both the plant and antibiotics increased significantly than their individual results. The result of this study showed that the extract of Dalbergia latifolia has antimicrobial properties against MDR Salmonella enterica strain.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Profile and in vitro Antioxidant Properties of Baphia pubescens Leaves

Tomisin Happy Ogunwa, Tolulope Tosin Adeyelu, Rotimi Yemi Fasimoye, Mary Bosede Oyewale, Taiwo Ademola Ademoye, Oluwasogo Clement Ilesanmi, Damilola Rafiat Sholanke, Oluwafemi Busayo Awe, Samuel Ayomikun Ajiboye, Bunmi Oluwayemisi Oloye, Folasade Catherine Ayenitaju

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/39312

Aims: Baphia pubescens (B. pubescens) is used by local traditional healers among the Ikale people in Nigeria for the management of numerous free radical-mediated ailments and complications. This preliminary study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical profile and antioxidant properties of B. pubescens leaves as an indigenous medicinal plant.

Methodology: The total antioxidant capacity of the plant was investigated using several models including DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, metal ion chelating, superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging. Also, both qualitative and quantitative phytochemical contents of the plant were determined.

Results: The results obtained showed the absence of cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones while bioactive components such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, and phenolic compounds were present. The quantitative phytoconstituent evaluation revealed values of 13.31±1.07% and 1.17±0.13% per dry weight for saponins and alkaloids respectively, 8.54±0.81 mg/g rutin equivalent for flavonoids content, 3.32±0.26 mg/g gallic acid equivalent for phenolic compounds content and 1.97±0.21 mg/g tannic acid equivalent for tannins. Antiradical activities were demonstrated by the plant extract against all the free radical-generating models adopted in the current study. For DPPH, IC50 value of 154.054 mg/mL was obtained compared to standard antioxidant, Trolox (IC50 118.112 mg/mL).

Conclusion: The plant possessed reasonable scavenging effects on the radicals and anions employed in this study which corroborates the folkloric uses of B. pubescens leaves in treatment and management of diseases associated with oxidative stress since the plant is a good source of natural antioxidant agents.


Open Access Review Article

Cupping Therapy (Al-Hijamah) Points: A Powerful Standardization Tool for Cupping Procedures?

Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Osama A. Alkhamees, Saud M. Alsanad

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/39269

Background: Cupping (Al-Hijamah) therapy is a traditional complementary and alternative medicine practice used in diverse diseases with the variable outcome since ancient times. The precise selection of cupping points is a core component of cupping therapy techniques and one of the important determinant factors concerning the outcome of a disease and safety of the patient. Objective: The aim of this narrative overview is to critically describe various cupping points and their tentative selection criteria that help cupping practitioners in applying cups accurately on the afflicted skin surface.

Methods: Electronic searches of certain databases and scientific publishing websites were made using Boolean Operators and keywords, and based on exclusion/inclusion criteria and consensus 40 full pertinent English articles of the last five years (2013-2017) were included by two independent reviewers.

Results: The theme of cupping points is complex controversial and often puzzling, and connected to a variety of determining tentative criteria and factors and have their prime roots in Prophetic Islamic medicine and Traditional medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Modern medicine.

Conclusion: The cupping (Al-Hijamah) therapy techniques with precise selection of cupping points on the afflicted skin surface (i.e., sites of pain) tend to produce good therapeutic response without any major adverse events in patients with specific diseases. This study calls for further research in order to uniformly define and classify cupping therapy points concerning individual specific diseases, prevention of diseases and promotion of health at global level.