Open Access Policy Article

HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the University of Dschang, Cameroon: Evidence and Policy Formulation Process

Etengeneng Esther Agbor, Mbu Daniel Tambi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/31103

Using a content analysis approach, we have attempted to carry out a comprehensive analysis on HIV/AIDS Epidemic in University of Dschang, Cameroon with a particular focus on evidence and policy formulation. The main objective of the study is to analyze the evidences and policy formulation process of HIV/AIDS pandemic in the University of Dschang, while the policy objectives are: (I) to enhance the University’s capacity to develop and communicate messages for scaling-up the desired behavioral change; (2) to put in place HIV/AIDS sensitive procedures and practices, (3) to develop a working relationship between the University and the neighboring community utilizing the existing frameworks of government and non-governmental organizations and (4) to support the national efforts to develop and communicate HIV Prevention, AIDS Care and Advocacy messages among the youths in the formal education system and in the neighboring community. The formulation of policy is a major step towards poverty reduction due to expenditure by HIV/AIDS patient to keep up themselves and an effective supply of labour.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used as Aphrodisiacs in Bauchi Local Government Area

S. Y. Sabo, S. O. Otimenyin, M. O. Uguru, B. B. Bukar

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/39229

Background: An aphrodisiac can be defined as any type of food or drink that is capable of causing sexual desire or arousal, increase sexual potency and increase sexual pleasure. The use of synthetic aphrodisiacs results in unwanted side effects that are noxious to the patients, thus there is a growing need to look for aphrodisiacs of herbal origin with lesser side effects.

Aim: The aim of the study is to conduct an Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as aphrodisiacs in Bauchi Local Government area.

Methods: Traditional medical practitioners with expertise in management of sexual problems were interview using a well structured ethnobotanical questionnaire

Results: Medicinal plants such as Waltheria indica, Trephrosia purpurea, Hygrophilla auriculata, Gardiena erubescense, Olax subscorpioidea, Fadogia agrestis, Hymenocardia acida, Borassus aethiopum, Dichrostachys cinerea and Cyperus esculentus were identified to be used singly as aphrodisiacs.

Conclusion: All plants should be investigated scientifically to substantiate the traditional claims except Fadogia agretis which was pharmacologically proven to possess aphrodisiac activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Anticandidal Activity of Euphorbia prostrata

Roland Tchuenteu Tchuenguem, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Jean Paul Dzoyem

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/38924

Background: Euphorbia prostrata, is an annual herbaceous plant reported to possess many biological activities. In Cameroon, it is traditionally used to treat various diseases among which fungal infections.

Aims: This study aimed at evaluating the safety and the therapeutic effectiveness of E. prostrata extract in an experimentally induced systemic candidiasis on rats.

Methods: The acute oral toxicity of the E. prostrata extract was determined using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline 425. The in vitro antifungal activity was assessed by the broth micro-dilution method against four Candida strains. The in vivo activity was evaluated in rat model with disseminated candidiasis due to Candida albicans by estimating the fungal burden in the kidneys.The side effects associated with antifungal therapy were determined by the assessment of some serum biochemical parameters using commercial kits.

Results: The doses used during acute toxicity study, did not cause any mortality or significant behavioural changes, thus leading to a LD50 value greater than 5000 mg/kg. E. prostrata extract exhibited good anticandidal activity against the tested yeasts with a MIC value equal to 64 µg/mL, obtained against the tested C. albicans strain. Oral administration of E. prostrata extract at the doses 33.2, and 166 mg/kg of body weight (bw) to artificially infected rats, resulted in a complete recovery of the animals after 15 days of treatment with the number of colony forming units per milliliter of C. albicans cells in the kidney equal to zero.The evolution of the serum biochemical parameters during the treatment revealed that E. prostrata extract exhibited relative side effects on rats.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the therapeutic effectiveness of E. prostrata extract on an experimentally induced systemic candidiasis on rat as well as its relative safety, thus justifying its traditional use for the treatment of mycoses.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Beneficial Effects of Guiera Senegalensis on Selected Parameters in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Wister Rats

S. D. Abubakar, J. O. Adisa, S. M. Sahabi, K. Abdullahi, U. Abubakar, S. A. Fasogbon, A. A. Zakariya

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/39407

Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and are defined as chronic and relapsing inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract caused by variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Synthetic chemical moieties with antioxidant potential are the present treatment regimens, but their high relapse rate and toxicities limit their utility in treatment.

Aim: The aim of this work is to investigate the possible beneficial effects that the aqueous extract of the plant will elicit on selected parameters in experimental rats. A control, colitis control and a treatment control will serve as a guide in the assessment of the findings in this study.

Methods: Experimental colitis was induced in animals using acetic acid to mimic human IBD. An aqueous extraction method of the plant was used to reflect traditional uses. The effects of oral administration of the extract in the animals were compared using a control, colitis control and treatment control (Prednisolone).

Results: There were statistically significant and dose-dependent improvements in food intake, stool consistency, body weight and microscopic colonic changes of test animals compared to control groups but not as remarkable as the treatment control. The extract also showed remarkable improvement in the scores of both macroscopic and microscopic colonic parameters compared to control groups. Also, the findings were not as potent as prednisolone. Water intake and splenic weight, on the other hand, were better in animals receiving the extract compared to those receiving prednisolone. The extract, however, does not bear the side effects of immune suppression and toxicity that prednisolone has as evidenced by splenic weights measured.

Conclusion: The extract is safe for consumption and has shown anti-inflammatory and healing properties. Prednisolone (2mg/kg) showed slightly better anti-inflammatory properties than the extract at doses used in this study (≤400mg/kg). The extract, however, doesn't seem to have the side effects of prednisolone.

 

Open Access Review Article

A Basic Review on Diabetes Mellitus

E. Siva Rami Reddy

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2017/39478

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by excessive glucose levels and less insulin or absent of insulin hormone in the blood circulation. Diabetes mellitus is classified into four types, namely type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus and juvenile diabetes mellitus. Type one diabetes mellitus is also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This diabetes mellitus is failed to produce insulin from beta cells of pancreas. Type two diabetes mellitus is also called non insulin diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This diabetes mellitus decreases insulin secretion from beta cell of pancreas or insulin resistance. Juvenile diabetes mellitus occurs in children and gestational diabetes which occurs during pregnancy. Long standing diabetes mellitus cause formed macro and micro vascular complications. Diabetes mellitus can be managed with antidiabetic drugs, both oral and parenteral routes.