Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Ethanol Bark Extract of Moringa oleifera on Reproductive Biology of Non-pregnant Wistar Albino Rats

C. B. Onyewuchi, J. S. Aprioku, I. M. Siminialayi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/40118

Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethanol bark extract of Moringa oleifera (EBMO) on reproductive hormone levels and organ histology in non-pregnant Wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; between March and May, 2017.

Methodology: The study was conducted using 40 non-pregnant adult female rats which were divided into four groups (n=10 per group), labelled as groups I, II, III and IV. Group I was the control (given only distilled water), whereas rats in groups II, III and IV were orally administered EBMO (100, 200 and 400mg/kg, respectively) daily for 30 days. At the end of treatment, blood was collected for estimation of serum concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). The ovaries, uteri and fallopian tubes of the rats were examined for histologic changes.

Results: There was a non-significant decline in the concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in EBMO treated rats compared to control. No changes occurred in the serum levels of prolactin, LH and FSH after EBMO treatment. Also, there were no alterations in the histology of all three organs in EBMO treated rats when compared to control.

Conclusion: Results indicate that subacute administration of EBMO does not cause alterations of serum concentrations of reproductive hormones or histology of reproductive organs in non-pregnant Wistar rats.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Potentials of the Leaf and Root Extracts of Vanda roxburghii (Roxb)

Yesmin Begum, Prosengit Kumer Sen, Israt Jahan Bulbul, Fatema Nasrin

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/40002

Aims: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials of the methanolic leaf and root extracts of Vanda roxburghii (LVR and RVR) belonging to the family Orchidaceae, a hill tract plant, traditionally used in rheumatism.

Study Design: The current study was carried out in vivo. LVR and RVR were divided into two concentrations, 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight and then subjected to different mice models to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh, within a period of six month.

Methodology: Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LVR and RVR (50 and 100 mg/kg) of V.  roxburghii were evaluated in different mice models as acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema models using diclofenac sodium as standard. 

Results: The results of the study showed that both LVR and RVR possess peripherally and centrally acting analgesic potential in mice model. In acetic acid induced writhing method, LVR (100 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.001) reduced pain sensation with 64.94% inhibition as compared to standard with 70.13% of inhibition. Correspondingly, LVR (100 mg/kg) also appreciably (p<0.01) reduced licking in early phase with 51.43% of inhibition and late phase (p<0.001) with   88.89% of inhibition as compared to standard. Furthermore, RVR also showed significant analgesic activity in both early and late phase at the dose of 50 mg/kg with 50.48% and 66.67% of inhibition. In the anti-inflammatory study, LVR and RVR (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) activity after 3 hours of administration of plant extract against carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema with 67.14% and 61.37% of inhibition respectively as compared to standard 72.28% of inhibition.

Conclusion: The investigation revealed that the methanolic leaf and root extracts of V. roxburghii have both central and peripheral analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory potentials that would add a great medicinal value to develop it’s ethnopharmacological study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Thrombolytic Activity of the Methanolic Extracts of Ficus racemosa Fruits

Mst. Shirajum Munira, Md. Bahar Uddin, Md. Shariful Islam, Koly Aktar, Abdul Muhit

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/40429

Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the antioxidant, cytotoxicity, antibacterial and thrombolytic activity of the methanolic extract of fruit of F. racemosa.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in August 2017 in the Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods: Total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content activity was determined by several standard methods. Cytotoxicity activity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii by using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Vincristine sulphate is used as positive control. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion technique here Kanamycin was used as standard. The thrombolytic activity was determined by clot lysis method. 

Results: The total antioxidant capacity of crude methanolic extract was also found very good compared to standard catechin. IC50 of BHT (standard) and crude methanol extract were 9.24 μg/ml and 11.36 μg/ml respectively. The presence of endogenous substances in F. racemosa fruits that may act as an antioxidant was established by measuring the total content of phenolic, flavonoid compounds. For the cytotoxicity test, in brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the LC50 value obtained was 12.34 µg/ml of the methanolic extract of the F. racemosa fruits. The zone of inhibition of fruit extracts of F. racemosa was in the range from 11 to 18 mm and the highest activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus at 500 μg/disc having a zone of inhibition of 18 mm in diameter. For thrombolytic test, F. racemosa extracts showed poor clot lysis activity (21.1%) compared to the standard streptokinase (SK) whose clot lysis activity was 61.31%.

Conclusion: From the research it can be concluded that the methanolic extracts of F. racemosa fruits possess significant antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, thrombolytic activity that could be a better treatment of diseases. So, further studies are recommended to isolate the exact compounds responsible this activity and their efficacy need to be tested.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Cymbopogon citratus Leaf on Trypanosoma brucei Infection in Albino Rats

I. Y. Longdet, M. B. Samuel, Y. Denkok, D. A. Panshak, A. D. Bogolnaan, S. W. Kupdurah, G. Istifanus

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/38126

Ethyl acetate extracts of Cymbopogon citratus leaves were evaluated for their phytochemical constituents and anti-trypanosomal activity in Trypanosoma brucei infected rats. The albino rats were treated for ten days with 200 mg/Kg, 100 mg/Kg and 50 mg/Kg plant extracts per body weight. Treatment with ethylacetatic extract of Cymbopogon citratus at 200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg extracts per body weight had an effect on the parasite. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the parasitaemia levels of Trypanosoma brucei infected rats treated with 200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg extracts per body weight compared with the infected untreated ones. The result of the haematological study showed that significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the packed cell volume (PCV) of treated rats when compared with the infected untreated group. Also, the mean weight and survival rate of the infected treated rats showed a significant difference (P<0.05) when compared to the infected untreated rats. From this study, it was observed that ethyl acetate extract of Cymbopogon citratus leaf is effective against Trypanosoma brucei.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanol Extract of Mangifera indica on Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore in Normal Rat Liver and Monosodium Glutamate-induced Liver and Uterine Damage

A. O. Olowofolahan, O. A. Adeosun, O. T. Afolabi, O. O. Olorunsogo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/40587

Introduction: The mitochondrion has been known to play a crucial role in the induction of apoptosis as a result of the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore which results to the release of cytochrome C and consequently, lead to cell death (apoptosis).

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of crude methanol extract of Mangifera indica (MEMI) on mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis via induction of MMPT pore opening in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: Mitochondria, isolated from female albino rat liver (between 90-100 g), were exposed to varying concentrations (10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 μg/ml) of MEMI. Opening of the pore, cytochrome c release, mitochondrial ATPase activity and extent of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation were assessed spectrophotometrically. Histological examinations were also carried out on the liver and uteruses of normal and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated rats.

Results: The in vitro results showed a significant concentration-dependent induction of pore opening by 1.5, 10.3, 11.5, 13.1 and 17.4 folds, respectively. Oral administration of MEMI at varying doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kgbw also showed an induction  folds of 0.4, 1.9 and 2.3, respectively, after 14 days, and more significantly, induction folds of 3.4, 6.3 and 15.4, respectively, after 28 days of treatment. Also, MEMI caused a significant release of cytochrome C and enhancement of ATPase activity both in vitro and in vivo in a concentration and dose-dependent manner. The histological findings also showed that MEMI ameliorated the damage induced in the liver and uterus of MSG-treated rats. It also reduced the MSG-induced uterine hyperplasia in the co-administered group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that MEMI contains bioactive agents that can induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and ameliorate MSG-induced liver damage and uterine hyperplasia. This might be relevant in disease conditions where apoptosis needs to be upregulated.