Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Phytocomponents and Hypoglycaemic Effect of Hydro-methanolic Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Spinach Tree) in Streptozotocin Induced - Diabetic Wistar Rats

Weleh Ikechukwu Iyke, Nwafor Arthur, Njoku Bestman, Nwoke Kyrian Uchenna, Deebii Numbara

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/26858

Introduction: The potency of plants are largely due to the presence of phytochemicals contained in it; which establishes its efficacy in the treatment of health conditions like diabetes mellitus.

Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the phytocomponents and hypoglycaemic effect of hydro-methanolic leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf in Streptozotocin induced - diabetic Wistar rats.

Methods: Thirty six (36) wistar rats with average weight of 230 g, were randomly assigned into five groups of 6 each animals each. Group 1: Served as Negative control (Non-diabetic) and received normal rat chow and water; Group 2: Served as positive control group and received 10 mg/kg bw of glibenclamide; groups 3, 4 and 5 served as test, and received 100 mg/kg bw, 150 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract respectively orally for 28 days. After one week of acclimatization, diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 60mg/kg bw.

Results: The phytochemical screening of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius revealed highly abundant levels of alkaloids and flavonoids, with moderate levels of tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, free anthraquinones, combined anthraquinones, terpenes, cardiac glycoside and cyanogenetic glycoside. 4.0% crude protein, 33% crude fibre, 7.0% crude fat, 3.0% ash and 6.1% muslin were revealed as the phytonutrients of the extract. The phytomineral screening of the extracts revealed 10 mg iron, 100 mg phosphorus, 0.01 mg sodium, 85mg magnesium, 20 mg potassium, 18 mg manganese, and 50 mg calcium. A dose dependent reduction in blood glucose level was observed after treatment when compared with glucose level before induction.

Discussion and Conclusion: This study revealed the ability of C. aconitifolius to lower blood glucose level; thereby suggesting that it could serve as a better therapy for diabetes mellitus and paving way for further investigation to identify the actual bioactive compounds responsible. This study provides novel information on the presence of muslin – an active phytonutrient, used in the arrest of bleeding in aneurysms. This might lead to the development of new excellent alternative natural remedy in cardiovascular studies.


Open Access Original Research Article

Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay of Selected Medicinal Plants in Tanzania

Barakaeli Abdiel Ndossi, Mhuji Kilonzo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41239

Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the level of cytotoxicity activity of Mentha piperita (L), Tragia involucrata (L) and Urtica massaica (Mildbr) used as medicinal plants in Tanzania.

Study Design: Experimental study was carried out by using Brine Shrimp lethality bioassay.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the University of Dodoma, Tanzania, between July and October 2017.

Methodology: The plant materials were subjected to extraction using chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol for 48 hours. The potential cytotoxicity effect of the extracts was determined using brine shrimp toxicity assay.

Results: The leaf extracts of M. piperita ethyl acetate leaf and M. piperita methanol exhibited strong cytotoxicity effect against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 values of 32.65 and 41.58 µg/mL respectively while leaf extracts of M. piperita chloroform and T. involucrate ethyl acetate had weak cytotoxicity activity with LC50 values above 100 µg/mL.

Conclusion: Majority of the extracts confirmed to be toxic and thus possess anticancer activity. Further study on the isolation of bioactive compounds which are responsible for the activity is recommended.


Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) from Libya

Basma Doro, Salma Mostafa Ben Garsa, Fatima Isa M. Abusua, Nouha Elmarbet, Mahmoud Ben Shaban

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/40820

Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial effect of Ficus carica extracts against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, & Staphylococcus aureus.

Study Design: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity using Cup-cut agar method.

Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli, from October 2015 to March 2016.

Methodology: The leaves and stem part extracts of Ficus carica plant were prepared using maceration method. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were evaluated using Cup-cut agar method to determinate inhibitory zone diameters in millimeters of the plant extracts against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The measurement of exponential bacterial growth curves was used to determine the type of growth pattern spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. Furthermore, plate count methods were also used to enumerate the bacterial count and to determine the percentage of inhibition as well as IC50.

Results: The results of this study showed that Ficus carica extracts used, exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus (27± 0.04mm, p<0.05) of methanol extract of stem part, while the minimum zone of inhibition was against Klebsiella pneumoniae (6 ± 0.04 mm) for methanol extract of leaf. The methanol extracts of stem part inhibited the S. aureus (27 ± 0.04 mm p<0.05), more than methanol extract of leaf (S. aureus 15 ± 0.06 mm). Latex had lower IC50 (1.69 ± 0.5w/v%) against S. aureus than P. aeruginosa (3.54 ± 0.2 w/v%); E. coli (8.24 ± 0.1w/v%), Leaf extract (0.79 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and stem part extract (0.204 ± 0.08mg/ml) against S. aureus.

Conclusion: Ficus carica methanolic extract was more effective against most of the tested bacteria than n-hexane extract, the stem part extract was more active as antibacterial than leaf extract against most of the tested bacteria except in case of Klebsiella peneumonia the leaf methanolic extract only inhibited it at zone of inhibition (6 ± 0.04 mm), while the n-hexane extract of leaf and stem part methanolic and n-hexane extract had no effect at all. Thereby, our results indicate that leaf and stem part of Ficus carica plant also latex has a strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative tested bacteria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antiproliferative Activity of the Fruit of Annona muricata and Abelmoschus esculentus Pods against Selected Cancer Cell Lines

Mercy Jepkorir, Tobias Ambundo, Chrispus Mutuku Ngule, Jecinta Wanjiru Ndungu’, Douglas Kahura Njuguna, Regina Wachuka Mbugua, Jean Chepng’etich, Peter Githaiga Mwitari

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41248

Incorporation of fruits and vegetables in diet can successfully be used in prevention and treatment of cancer. Annona muricata and Abelmoschus esculentus which belongs to the annonaceae and malvaceae family respectively have commonly been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments. This study evaluated the phytochemical components of both A. muricata and A. esculentus and their antiproliferative activity on the breast, cervical and prostate cancer cell lines. Both A. muricata and A. esculentus were extracted using methanol and dichloromethane in a ratio of 1:1. Phytochemical screening was done using standard analytical procedures.  The MTT assay was used to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of A. muricata and A. esculentus extracts against breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer and Vero cell lines. Phytochemical screening confirmed that the fruit of A. muricata and the pods of A. esculentus are rich in saponins, tannins, alkaloids, terpernoids, glycosides, flavonoids and phenols. A. muricata had an IC50 of 23.632±1.3465 µg/ml, 72.5860±1.9819 µg/ml and 93.6233±3.0570 µg/ml on Hela (cervical cancer cells), DU145 (Prostate cancer) and HCC 1395 (Breast cancer) cells respectively. A. esculentus demonstrated antiproliferative activity on Hela cells with an IC50 of 20.3840±1.2132 µg/ml on DU145 and HCC 1395 cells an IC50 of 50.013±0.2502 µg/ml and 171.6460±4.7642 µg/ml respectively. The standard drug used had an IC50 of 21.126 µg/ml on HCC and 24.850 µg/ml on Hela cells. Both plants selectively inhibited the growth of the cancerous cells tested (SI>3) with the highest selectivity observed in HCC 1395 cells. This study authenticates traditional use and suggests potential use of these plants in cancer management and treatment.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Chemical Constituents from Lychee Seed (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

Xuzhe Dong, Yihai Wang, Xiangjiu He

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41823

Aims: To research non-flavonoids chemical constituents from the lychee seed.

Study Design: Chemical constituents were isolated and elucidated from the lychee seed and their antioxidant activities were also estimated.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, between September 2015 and March 2018.

Methodology: All compounds were isolated by Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS as well as HPLC chromatography and confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR. The DPPH radical scavenging capacities of these isolated compounds were measured using the DPPH assay.

Results: Seventeen compounds were isolated and identified from the lychee seed (117). Among them, amentoflavone (1), (7R,8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), arjunglucoside I (5), 3β-hydroxy-7α-methoxy-24β-ethyl-cholest-5-ene (7), 4-hydroxy-5-(9′-oxo-8′-pyrrolidinyl)-benzoic acid (8), 1-pyrrolidineacetic methyl ester (9), phenylalanine methyl ester (10), 2-hydroxyquinoline-4-carboxyic acid (11), 3,4-dihydroxy-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid-methyl ester (13), 1,1-cyclopropanediacetic acid,1-methyl ester (15), cyclopropaneacetic acid, 2-(methoxycarbonyl) (16) were first isolated from lychee seed and 3 and 17 exhibited antioxidant capacities on DPPH radical scavenging.

Conclusion: This study suggests that compounds from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn. showed potential antioxidant properties, which mean that lychee seed could be utilized as a natural antioxidant for health care.