Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant and Anti-staphylococcal Activity of Bixa orellana Linn. and Milicia excelsa Welw

Olayemi Oluseun Ayepola, Amarachi Faithfulness Samson, Olabode Onile-Ere

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41086

An estimated 80% of persons in the world depend on medicinal plants for their healthcare needs. It is essential to study these plants in a bid to evaluate their therapeutic properties, adding credence to their applications in folklore. In this study, we report the antioxidant and antibiotic properties of Bixa Orellana (BO) and Milicia excelsa (ME) against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Antioxidant profile, Total phenol content and total flavonoid content of both plants were performed using standard methods. Also, methanolic extracts of Bixa orellana and Milicia excelsa prepared in concentrations ranging from 3.125 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml were assessed for their antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Total phenol content was 1.039 mg/g and 1.032 mg/g while total flavonoid content was 0.76mg/g and 0.5mg/g for Milicia excelsa and Bixa Orellana respectively. Both plant extracts also showed good free radical scavenging ability. The S. aureus isolates showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the test extracts with sensitivity reducing at lower concentrations. Bixa Orellana showed better activity than Milicia excelsa. However, Milicia excelsa inhibited more organisms at lower concentrations (≤25 mg/ml). This study has shown the efficacy of both plants as alternative herbal treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Level in Malaria Patients Attending Muhammadu Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital, Kano State, Nigeria

A. I. Kiru, R. K. Bala, A. M. Abdulazeez, S. Y. Bello, A. L. Adam, S. M. Suleiman, A. Shamsu, M. L. Abdulkadir

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41215

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the serum lipid profile and electrolyte level and their association with severity of malaria among patients attending Muhammadu Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital, Kano State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Blood samples were obtained from four hundred (400) subjects: Two hundred and forty (240) pathological samples collected from malaria-infected patients and one hundred and sixty (160) from apparently healthy persons of the same age range with no evidence of malaria infection. Blood samples were screened for P. falciparum infection using both thin and thick film method, and severity of malaria was classified as described by World Health Organization. Also, the electrolyte (Na+, K+ and Cl-) level and lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, LDL, TAG and VLDL) were determined. Results were presented as Mean ± SD, evaluated by one-way ANOVA and the differences between the means assessed using Duncan's test. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05.

Results: From the results, there was significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of TC, LDL, TAG and VLDL and lower levels of HDL in malaria-infected patients compared to control group. The lipid fragments (TC, LDL, TAG and VLDL) increased significantly (P<0.05) with an increase in severity, while HDL decreased significantly (P<0.05). Also, there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the levels of Na+ and K+ while Cl- was not significantly (P>0.05) different in malaria-infected and control patients.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that characteristic serum lipid profile and electrolyte changes occur during malaria, hence the need to correct these derangements is of great significance in the management of malaria infection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Patient Outcome, Satisfaction, and Attitudes towards Integrative Medicine Model in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

M. Khalil, N. A. Qureshi, S. M. Alsanad

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41834

Background: In response to the wider use of traditional medicine especially wet cupping therapy (Hijamah) in Saudi Arabia, integrated cupping clinics were established as a model in two governmental hospitals in Jeddah and Medina. This study aimed at evaluating patients' outcome, satisfaction, and attitudes towards integrative cupping clinics.

Methods: A pilot survey study of patients treated in the two cupping integrative medicine clinics. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to measure the outcome of treatment by means of the Integrative Medicine Outcome Scale (IMOS), patients' satisfaction via the Integrative Medicine Patient Satisfaction Scale (IMPSS) and their attitudes towards the concept of integrated medicine (IM).

Results: Of the 168 patients included, 17.7% reported complete recovery, 47% stated a major improvement and 26% expressed a slight to moderate improvement. Concerning patient satisfaction, 39% were very satisfied, and 49% were satisfied. About 65% reported collectively complete recovery and major improvement. However, 88% were very satisfied or satisfied significantly with the services (p=<0.0001).  Patients strongly agreed that integrated cupping clinic satisfies patients’ needs, it improves health care system and helps patients to avoid unqualified practitioners. However, they disagreed that the Ministry of Health (MOH) should provide only modern medicine or cupping can replace modern medicine.

Conclusion: Wet cupping model of integrative medicine clinics is a promising experience which needs to be replicated along with establishing similar clinics in other hospitals, and used as one of the healthcare transformation paradigms in Saudi Arabia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Routine Functional Activities in the Comparative Siddha Medical Treatment for Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka

S. Vinotha, I. Thabrew, S. Sri Ranjani

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41809

Aims: Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) is a most common form of the rheumatic disease and relatively the prevalence is higher in Asians than in Western populations. KOA is one of the five leading causes of disability among elderly men and women. The scope of this study was to assess the routine functional activities by WOMAC score in the Siddha medical treatment for symptomatic KOA in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka.

Study Design: This was an open, randomized, parallel group of comparative clinical trial.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in selected Government Ayurveda Hospitals in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka between January 2013 and August 2014.

Methodology: This clinical trial was conducted based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification, 837 KOA subjects were screened and 250 KOA subjects of both genders, aged ≥40 years were randomly selected at Out Patients Department of Ayurveda Hospitals. Selected subjects were alternatively divided into two groups as group A and group B. The group A were received ‘Medicine A’ {2 capsules of 1 g Amukkirai Chooranam with Thalangai ennai (external application)} while group B was received ‘Medicine B’ {2 capsules of 1g Vellarugu Chooranam with Thalangai ennai} twice daily, up to 40 days. The modified Indian version of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score was the primary outcome variable used to assess the self-reported pain, stiffness and physical functions based on the life style activities. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS version 17.

Results: There were 177 (70.8%) female and 73 (29.2%) male with a mean age of 57.02 (SD±8.78) years. At the end of treatment, for group A, the mean total WOMAC score was reduced from 156.03±53.83 to 78.68±37.11 while for group B, that score was reduced from 165.29±57.19 to 83.79±41.08. Although there was a significant reduction in pain, stiffness, physical function and total score (P=0.000) for WOMAC index during routine functional activities at end of the treatment in each group, there was no significant differences (P>0.05) observed between both groups.

Conclusion: The Present study also strengthens the contemporary area of comparative effectiveness of selected siddha medication (both Amukkirai Chooranam and Vellarugu Chooranam together with Thalangai ennai) in routine functional activities in the treatment of symptomatic KOA treatment over 40 days of therapy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Mitigations in Testicular, Hepatic, and Pancreatic Histo-morphology in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Sprague Rats Treated with Fresh Coconut Oil and Vitamin E

E. M. Aisuodionoe, A. O. Naiho, B. C. Okonkwo, G. T. Olowe, P. R. C. Esegbue, J. C. Igweh

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41581

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a condition in which the pancreas produces insufficient amounts of insulin, or in which the body’s cells fail to respond appropriately to available insulin. In diabetics, glucose levels build up in the blood and urine, causing excessive urination, thirst, hunger, and problems with fat and protein metabolism. Studies have shown that antioxidant constituents of virgin coconut oil might be helpful in ameliorating DM.The present study investigated the lessening effect(s) of fresh coconut oil (FCO) intake on the deterioration of liver and pancreatic tissues in alloxan-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. Ninety-eight (98) albino rats (100 - I50g) were randomly divided into two (2) units of forty-nine (49) rats each; with each unit subdivided into seven (7) groups of seven (7) animals each. At induction of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subgroups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of unit 1 and B, C, D, E, F and G of Unit 2, rats in 1 and A subgroups were left untouched to serve as a control. Whereas, unit 1 (treated for 2 weeks), subgroups 2-7 respectively received nothing (after DM confirmation), nothing (after DM confirmation), 7.5 mg/kg of FCO, 10 mg/kg of FCO, 7.5 mg/kg of FCO plus Vitamin E, 10 mg/kg of FCO plus Vitamin E, and only Vitamin E; Unit 2 animals (treated for 4 weeks) were given untreated (after confirming diabetes), 7.5 mg/kg of FCO, 10 mg/kg of FCO, 7.5 mg/kg of FCO + Vitamin E, 10 mg/kg of FCO and Vitamin E, and Vitamin E respectively for B-G subgroups. Following administration of test substance, rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation, testes, pancreas and liver tissues harvested for histo-architectural analysis/changes. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that dietary factor-Vitamin E, significantly modulates the effect of FCO with significant improvement in histo-architecture in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.