Open Access Short Communication

Essential Oils of Aerial Parts of Crassocephalum rubens (Juss. ex Jacq.) S. Moore and Cardiospermum grandiflorum (Sweet) Stem

O. O. Olaoluwa, I. A. Oladosu, O. O. Aiyelaagbe, G. Flamini

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/42485

Aim: This paper presents the essential oils constituents of aerial parts of Crassocephalum rubens and stem of Cardiospermum grandiflorum. C. rubens is a Nigerian vegetable used as a nutraceutical and traditionally has been used as antibiotic, anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-malaria and blood regulating agents. C. grandiflorum (Sapindaceae) is considered a noxious weed in Australia and South Africa. The leaves are taken as vegetable in Ghana and have application for dermatological troubles, chest problems and fever. The plant has also been used in the treatment of jaundice, cough and kidney problems.

Methodology: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus designed to British Pharmacopeia specifications and analyzed using Gas-Chromatography/Mass-Spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: Oil yields were 0.52% and 0.09% w/w for C. rubens and C. grandiflorum respectively. Fifty-six compounds representing 97.5% of C. rubens oil were identified. Main constituents in the leaf oil of C. rubens were monoterpenes; limonene (81.1%), (Z)-β-ocimene (4.6%), terpinolene (3.4%) and (E)-β-ocimene (2.2%). Oxygenated derivatives were detected at trace amount. Sixty-three compounds were identified that represented 97.8% of the essential oil of C. grandiflorum stems. The essential oil was characterized by high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons that accounted for 91.2% of the whole oil followed by 3.7% oxygenated sesquiterpene. The main compounds were germacrene D (26.2%), (Z)-γ-bisabolene (15.5%), β-caryophyllene (13.9%) and germacrene B (7.9%).

Conclusion: This paper presents essential oil components of C. rubens and C. grandiflorum that are scanty in the literature. Characterized compounds in each plant could be responsible for their ethno-medicinal activities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antihyperglycemic Effect of Balanites aegyptiaca Leaves Extract-Fractions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

D. H. Mhya, K. M. Anigo, I. A. Umar, J. O. Alegbejo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/41997

Introduction: The antidiabetic potentials of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit and seed extracts has been reported by several scientific studies. While very few data reported anantidiabetic study of the plant leaf despite it’s used by some traditional medicine practitioners in the management of diabetes mellitus and some ailments. This study, therefore, investigates the effect of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a bid to ascertain its antidiabetic potential.  

Methods: Dried powdered Balanites aegyptiaca leaves was defatted with hexane and then extracted with ethanol. The ethanol extract was a petition with water and ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) and then separated. Ethyl acetate (ELF) and aqueous (ALF) fractions obtained were studied for  antihyperglycemic activity. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male wistar rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). 

Results: The results showed that diabetes-induced in rats was characterized by low serum insulin and hyperglycemia. Treating diabetic rats with extract-fractions of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves slightly elevated serum insulin, lowered fasting blood glucose levels and improved serum lipid profile; total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C toward normal. The aqueous fraction (ALF) was the most potent; it lowered fasting blood glucose by 15. 87% compared to the 24. 62 % fasting blood glucose reduction by metformin. ALF of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves suppressed fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (from 2.19±0.25 to 1.32±0.06 U/min/µmole Pi liberated) and glycogen phosphorylase (from 3.82±0.21 to 2.76±0.02 U/min/mg protein) but enhanced phosphofructokinase (from 2.06±0.07 to 2.52±0.03 U/min/mg protein) and glycogen synthase (from 9.41±0.34 x 10-2 to 14.45±0.16 x 10-2 U/min/mg protein).

Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Balanites aegyptiaca leaves ethanol extract-fractions exerted antihyperglycemic, antilipidemic and glucose enzymes regulatory effects. Further research is needed to explore the leaves bioactive components and their mode of action so that the plant leaves with the bioactive compounds can be used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for drug medication manufacturing.




Open Access Original Research Article

Muscle Inhibitory Vs Functional Corrective Kinesio Taping on Gross Motor Functional Abilities in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Alaa N. Kora, Faten H. Abdelazeim, Khaled A. Olama, Ehab R. Abdol Raouf, Osama R. Abdelraouf

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/42637

Background and Purpose: Spastic cerebral palsy affects ankle joint function leading to a decrease of the gross motor functional abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the Muscle inhibitory with Functional corrective Kinesio Taping applications on gross motor functional abilities of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

Methods: Thirty-two children with spastic cerebral palsy were selected from the outpatient clinic of the faculty of Physical Therapy Cairo University. Muscle inhibitory and functional corrective Kinesio taping applications in addition to physical therapy program were applied for three successive months. Peabody Developmental Motor Scales was used to assess the gross motor functional abilities.

Results: The study revealed that statistically and clinically there was no difference between both applications.

Conclusion: Muscle inhibitory and Functional Corrective Kinesio Taping applications both can be used for increasing the gross motor functional abilities of children with spastic cerebral palsy with no favour to any of them.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on Biochemical Indices of Prostate Functions in Hormonal Induced Enlarged Prostate in Rats

Melvin Nnaemeka Ugwu, Mary Achi Mgbekem, Mbeh Ubana Eteng

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/42506

Background: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common urological disorder in elderly men. We investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on BPH.

Methods: BPH was induced in male rats weighing 250-350 g. Testosterone propionate (T) and estradiol valerate (E2) were used for the induction at a dose of 400 µG T and 80 µG E2 respectively. This was administered to the rats for three weeks subcutaneously in the inguinal region. A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of the hormones for 3 weeks to induce BPH. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with different doses of VA extracts and group 3 received finasteride, all by gavages for forty-five days, while group 4 was left untreated, group 5 served as normal control. After forty-five days of treatment with VA extract, the rats were anaesthetised by short contact with trichloromethane vapour. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and the sera cautiously centrifuged and used for the determination of different biochemical indices. The prostate was harvested and weighed. The harvested prostate were processed for paraffin embedding and stained with H and E.

Results: Treatment with the extract and finasteride resulted to significant (P < 0.05) decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), estradiol and prolactin, testosterone and protein content of the prostate when compared to BPH control. Prostate weight was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in treated groups compared to BPH control. This was supported by the histological examination.

Conclusion: Therefore, Vernonia amygdalina was effective in reducing PSA, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol and prostate weight induced BPH in a rat model, and may be useful for the clinical treatment of patients with BPH.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Ameliorating Potential of Annona muricata on Sodium Fluoride-induced Toxicity on Liver and Kidney of Male Wistar Rats

Blessing M. Onyegeme-Okerenta, Benjamin A. Amadi, Vivian O. Ezeonyilimba

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/43274

Introduction: Annona muricata is a plant common to areas of South and North America as well as in West Africa, especially in Western Nigeria. It is one of the tropical plants that demonstrate antioxidant properties. The effect of combined oral administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) and fruit juice, ethanol stem bark and leaf extracts of A. muricata on biochemical parameters of mature male wistar rats was investigated.

Methods: Eighty-five (85) adult male wistar rats were divided into 17 groups of 5 rats each. Sodium fluoride (10 mg/kg) and fruit juice, ethanol stem bark and leaf extracts of A. muricata at five different doses of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg/kg body weight were administered to the rats for 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken after 6 weeks of administration of the extracts, through the ocular puncture and the sera were used for biochemical analyses; creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and thyroid function tests were carried out.

Results: Combined administration of NaF + stem bark and NaF + leaf extracts showed non-significant (p>0.05) decrease in the activities of ALT, AST and urea level, while NaF + fruit juice had varied effects on creatinine level and AST activity. Photomicrograph of the liver and the kidney sections of group administered with NaF only showed damaged hepatic tissue with focal aggregate of inflammatory cell, portal aggregate of inflammatory cells and severely damaged renal tissue with coagulative necrosis of the glomeruli that leads to closure of malpighian body, apoptosis of tubular cells, focal area of intrarenal haemorrhage and tubular necrosis. However, administration of (NaF + fruit juice), (NaF + stem bark extract) and (NaF + leaf extract) resulted in mild/moderate ameliorative and regeneration of damaged hepatic and renal tissues.

Conclusion: Concomitant treatment of NaF and fruit juice extract of A. muricata was found to have an ameliorative effect on the liver and kidney of sodium fluoride-induced toxicity.