Open Access Original Research Article

Implications of Demographic and Modifiable Risk Factors of Obesity in Municipal Adults of Enugu

R. N. Ativie, C. C. Ihegihu, E. Chukwuemerie

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/44084

Understanding the determinants of obesity in young adults is not only vital to its association with other chronic diseases but also for proper diagnosis and prognosis in clinical processes. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic and modifiable risk factors that contribute to obesity amongst young adults of Enugu Metropolis. Four hundred and Nineteen (419) young adults (195 males and 224 females) were randomly selected. Demographic characteristics (age, gender and marital status) and modifiable risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and dietary intake) were obtained. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were also measured and levels of Physical activity were assessed. Using descriptive and statistical measures of correlation (Pearson’s correlation), result shows that age and marital status are positively correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI) with gender having no correlation with BMI and WC. Outcome of modifiable risk factors revealed that dietary intake (p < 0. 001; r = 0.343), alcohol consumption (p < 0.001; r = 0.320) and tobacco use (p < 0.001; r = 0.196) had a positive, significant correlation with BMI and WC; while physical activity level had a negative, significant correlation. Therefore, chances of being obese increases with poor dietary intake, abnormal alcohol consumption, tobacco use and low Physical activity level.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dilutions of Apis mellifera on Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Antiretroviral Therapy in Mice

M. L. Recco, T. Sakurada Jr, L. A. Jagas, M. Spack Jr, A. R. T. Pupulin

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/43701

Background: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is associated with significant mortality decreased and risk in AIDS progression. However, complications due to long-standing HIV infection and treatment have become increasingly important. Complications include hepatic and nephrotoxic effects of HAART. Studies on honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom proved its anticancer effects, antimicrobial activity, immunomodulatory and vasoconstrictor effects. Current study evaluates the effect of dilutions of Apis mellifera on metabolic alterations induced in mice subjected to antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Materials and Methods: Each experimental group comprised 10 animals: (I) animals treated with HAART diluted in 1.2 mL water gavage/day, (II) animals treated with HAART diluted in 1.2 mL water gavage/day + Apis mellifera diluted 1x1012 in water 1.0 mL once daily added to the drinking water (1:10 mL) available ad libitum, (III) animals treated with HAART diluted in 1.2 mL water gavage/day + Apis mellifera diluted 1x1060 in water 1.0 mL once daily added to the drinking water (1:10 mL) available ad libitum, (IV) untreated (control group) received 1.2 mL water by gavage/day. The experimental groups were treated for 15 days. Clinical evaluation (body weight, water intake and ration, excretion products, behavior) was performed before and after treatment and the serum cholesterol, triglycerides; hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT) and creatinine were assessed by specific methods. Results were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism using Student´s t test.

Results: Animals treated with HAART and Apis mellifera  diluted (II and III) had higher body weight gain, lower levels of triglycerides (20%), cholesterol (20%) and creatinine (50%) when compared to animals treated with antiretroviral therapy.

Conclusion: Renal dysfunction is common in HIV-patients and studies are consistent with HAART inhibiting creatinine secretion. Apis mellifera diluted 1x1012 and 1x1060 showed a significant effect on creatinine levels when compared to HAART group and demonstrated possible effect on kidney injury.


Open Access Original Research Article

Alterations in Oral Cancer Gene Expression in Response to Melatonin

Arin Hartounian, Guillermo Alessandro Retis, Karl Kingsley, Katherine Howard

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/44008

Aims: Melatonin (MLT) exerts oncostatic effects on numerous tumour types presumably by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-induced changes in gene expression patterns in two different oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (OSCC).

Methodology: This was a prospective non-randomized experimental study design that was conducted at Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine between May 2016 and March 2017. The SCC25 and CAL27 cell lines were cultured with and without MLT (10 ug/mL) for 72 hours, and total cellular RNA was isolated and converted to cDNA. The expression of 92 genes associated with the molecular mechanisms of cancer and four endogenous control genes were examined by qRT-PCR. The fold change with respect to control levels were calculated using the comparative method or delta-delta ddCt algorithm.

Results: Gene expression was compared between the untreated and treated cells, SCC25 and CAL27. Although 40% of the genes (n=37/92) in SCC25 cells demonstrated different expression levels, only six were outside the relative-fold change values observed with all other genes (PTEN, MAPK3K5, BCL2, TAGA2B, MAX, and NFKB-IA). In CAL27 cell over 70% (n=65/92) genes exhibited different expression levels, with only two outside the relative fold-change values observed with all other genes (MAPK3K5, FZD1).

Conclusion: MLT administration to oral cancer cells may induce substantial changes in the expression levels of genes associated with the molecular mechanisms of cancer. However, relatively few of these changes were outside the range of observed values. Therefore, continued analysis and verification of these results in other oral cancers may reveal common MLT-induced changed and provide insights into the potential mechanisms of MLT-induced oncostatic effects in oral cancers.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and In vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity of Oxygonum sinuatum (Meisn.) Dammer on Selected Cancerous Cells

Douglas Kahura Njuguna, Karori Mbuthia, Chrispus Mutuku, Mercy Jepkorir, Jecinta Wanjiru Ndung’u, Reginah Mwangangi, Jean Chepngetich, Peter Mwitari

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/44413

Cancer is a leading cause of deaths worldwide. The current search for alternative drugs is imperative. Medicinal plants are the most promising source of new anticancer agents. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition, and anti-proliferative activity of Methanol-Dichloromethane (1:1) extracts from the leaves, stem and fruits of Oxygonum sinuatum. Phytochemicals screening was done using standard procedures which were based on color change and/or precipitation. The MTT assay was used to test for the anti-proliferative activity of the plant extracts on selected cancer cell lines. In addition, normal Vero cells were used. 5-flourouracil was used as the standard drug. Results from this study revealed that stem, leaves and fruits extracts contained alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and phenols. The leaves, stem and fruits extracts showed moderate anti-proliferative activity on 4T1, Hcc 1395, 22Rv1 and DU145 with the best activity been registered by fruits extract on 4T1 cell line; 35.841±3.549µg/ml. The fruit extract showed no activity on DU145 cell line. The leaves and fruit extract showed no toxicity to Vero normal cells (CC50 >1000µg/ml) however, the stem extract was toxic to Vero cell, CC50 413.733±21.022 µg/ml. The highest selectivity index was registered by fruit extract on 4T1; SI=27.90. The leaves and stem extracts also showed high selectivity (SI >3) on 22Rv1 and DU145 respectively. The anti-proliferative activity of Oxygonum sinuatum on the selected cancer cell lines can be attributed to the phytochemical compounds present in the plant extracts.


Open Access Review Article

Cautery Looked through the Prisms of Shapes, Types and Methods: A Critical Appraisal

S. M. Alsanad, I. M. A. Gazzaffi, S. O. Salem, N. A. Qureshi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/44520

Background: Traditional cautery (in Arabic Kai) is an ancient practice and used in a variety of diseases with variable efficacy around the world.

Objective: This review aimed to describe critically and synthesise the literature on shapes, types and methods of cautery therapy.

Methods: Electronic searches of four databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and OvidSP) using the Boolean operators and keywords were conducted, and some pertinent articles and abstracts (N=10256) were retrieved for extensive appraisal by two independent reviewers. Finally, 90 articles were included in this paper.

Results: Cautery is described in the literature having multiple shapes, types, application marks, precautions and methods and efficacy supported by single case reports and case series with evidence level 4 & 5. Traditional cautery with specific shape and type is used in particular diseases together with a precise procedure, but the underlying mechanism of actions and effects are not well elucidated.

Conclusion: Cautery a recognised complementary and integrative therapy having different instrument shapes, types, application marks, methods and procedures and anatomical sites is used in many recommended diseases. Cautery is a safe therapy when used cautiously by an expert trained complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners and trained health professionals around the world. Unlike modern cautery, traditional cautery is mostly recommended as the last choice in the management of difficult-to-treat medico-surgical conditions, but this rule is not followed by health seekers characterised by low education, rural background, parental influence and strong religious convictions. This study calls for continuous cautery training programs directed towards CAM practitioners and conducting rigour basic research and randomised clinical trials for elucidating the underlying mechanism of actions and effects and effectiveness of cautery therapy in various indicated diseases around the world.