Portulaca oleracea, Linn. (Purslane), a widely eaten leafy vegetable in some parts of the world, is known to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E and C, and beta-carotene. It is frequently used in ethnomedicinal treatment of various ailments including anaemia. The dearth of information on the haematological properties of Portulaca oleracea which is used as staple vegetable and remedy for anaemia prompted this study. The study investigated the effect of the oral administration of chloroform leaf extracts of Portulaca oleracea (CLEPO) on haematological parameters in male albino wistar rats. Experimental animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 16 rats each. Group A(Control) received 0.5 ml/kg bw of 20% Tween 80 (vehicle), Groups B, C & D received 125, 250 & 500 mg/kg of the extract respectively for 60 days by oral gavage. On days 14, 28, 42 and 60; four rats from each group were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected for haematology. Increase in platelet count was recorded in all the test groups although only group B and D (125 and 500 mg/kg groups) on day 60 showed significant (p<0.05) increase relative to control. No significant (p>0.05) variation occurred in the mean haematocrit value, haemoglobin level, erythrocyte count, leucocyte count and differential leucocyte count relative to the control throughout the 60-day duration except in group D (500 mg/kg group) on day 28 where significant (p<0.05) decrease in haematocrit was observed. Oral administration of chloroform leaf extracts of P. oleracea as used in this study had no significant effect on haematological parameters. Although the absence of adverse effect on the haematological parameters over a 60 day period justifies the use of Portulaca oleracea as a staple vegetable, its use in the treatment of anaemia is not recommended.
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the traditional medicinal plants used by the Matigsalug tribe in Barangay Baganihan, Marilog District, Davao City, and for the purpose of providing baseline data to enable future pharmacological and phytochemical studies of identified medicinal plants.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Barangay Baganihan, Marilog District, Davao City with the following coordinates: 7º28'26"N and 125º14'36"E. Barangay Baganihan is inhabited by the Matigsalug tribe. The community also has the reputation of using alternative medicines in curing illnesses and is also known to have continually practised its indigenous tradition.
Methodology: The field sampling and documentation was made at Barangay Baganihan, Marilog District Davao City. It aims to determine the ethnobotanical practices and their ecological status of the medicinal plants used by Matigsalug Tribe. Respondents were randomly selected aging 18 to 60 years old for the interview using validated survey questionnaires.
Results: Overall, there were 35 plants identified with 22 families. Family of Poaceae had the highest number of species. Matigsalug Tribe mostly used leaves (28.57%), while the method of preparation was decoction (51.43%) and utilisation of these medicinal plants was ingestion (57.1%). The study revealed 22 identified species with a Fidelity Value of 100%. The disease categories with the highest Informed Consensus Factor were dermatological diseases (0.9 ICF). Based on the field sampling, there was 36 species with 26 families identified. In terms of species diversity index, Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used and obtained its value H’=2.736177 which indicates a high species diversity in the area.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the Matigsalug tribe was dependent on medicinal plants for their primary health care need. Therefore, there should be an educational program for awareness of the community on how to improve their practices and protection and conservation of the medicinal plants.
Background: Antimicrobials of plant origin have a huge therapeutic prospective and can efficiently be used to treat infectious diseases with reduced or no side effects as related to using synthetic antimicrobials. A potential plant-based antimicrobial is that obtained from Borassus aethiopum. The anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, antipyretic and anti-venom properties of extracts of B. aethiopum plant have been reported in literature these past few years.
Objective: The antimicrobial property and phytoconstituents of aqueous ripe fruit extract of B. aethiopum were investigated.
Methods: The ripe fruit extract of B. aethiopum was prepared by macerating the mesocarps of the fruits and then screened for the presence of phytochemicals using standard methods. The extract’s antimicrobial activity was studied by agar well diffusion method against Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430, Escherichiacoli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 33495, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305 and Staphylococcusaureus ATCC 25923. Chloramphenicol mixed with tetracycline was used as a standard antibacterial agent (Positive control). Sterile distilled water was used as diluent for reconstituting the aqueous extract.
Results: The aqueous extract revealed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The antibacterial activity revealed that at 30%, 40% and 50% w/v (0.3g/ml, 0.4g/ml and 0.5g/ml) of the extract, all the test bacterial strains were susceptible to the aqueous ripe fruit extracts of B. aethiopum.
Conclusion: Ripe fruit extracts of B. aethiopum was rich in phytochemicals and exhibited potential antibacterial activity against all seven bacterial strains used.
Background: Psychotropic drugs especially second generation of antipsychotics and antidepressants are used in psychiatric patients with severe mental disorders. These disorders are associated with weight gain and obesity that poses clinical challenges. This needs individualised-tailored integrative interventions including the promotion of health and wellbeing.
Objective: The review critically assimilates evidence-based data on several aspects of psychotropic-induced weight gain with a focus on therapeutic challenges and multidimensional integrative management strategies along with pharmacological interventions.
Methods: Electronic searches of three databases (from 2000 to 2018) using Boolean operators and keywords retrieved thousands of peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals. Based on exclusion and inclusion criteria 141 pertinent articles were retained for this review.
Results: Overweight in psychiatric patients on weight increasing psychotropic medications is associated with a variety of adverse consequences and therapeutic challenges. Overweight and obesity is reported to need a multimodal patient-centred approaches regarding lifestyle changes, dietary modifications and medicinal herbs, cognitive behavioural therapy, motivational psychotherapy and weight controlling pharmacological interventions. Multimodal treatment directed towards overweight is often delivered by a multidisciplinary team in well-equipped clinical settings. Symptom relief from the primary psychiatric illness is necessary for this strategy to work.
Conclusion: Although overweight or obesity secondary to psychotropic medication poses a number of treatment challenges, an integrative intervention that combines complementary therapies with conventional medications appears to work best. This review calls for comparative research to determine the most effective strategies to combat weight gain in psychiatric populations.
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common recurrent functional disorder without organic pathology. IBS mostly afflicts females often presents in different forms with abdominal and extra-abdominal symptoms, and impacts quality of life of patients around the world.
Objective: This update aims to critically describe the salient clinical features of IBS along with brief snapshots of complementary, conventional and integrative therapeutic approaches with a special focus on medical acupuncture.
Methods: A selective e-searches of relevant literature were carried out using keywords and Boolean operators, and finally 65 articles were retained for this critical clinical update.
Results: The main clinical manifestations of IBS include diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain, bloating and flatulence in the absence of “red flag” signs. Its several types (IBS-diarrhoea/constipation/mixed) affect approximately 15% to 40% of the general population. A variety of risk factors including gut-brain and biopsychosocial interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of this multifaceted gastrointestinal disorder that is reported to comorbid with other psychiatric disorders and physical diseases. A typical patient with IBS may require holistic customised intervention that will include complementary and integrative medicine modalities and conventional drug interventions with variable therapeutic results. Acupuncture is increasingly used globally and frequently combined with other Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) such as moxibustion, cupping therapy (Hijamah), medicinal herbs, mind-body-spirit therapies, and dietary modifications such as prebiotics and probiotics and life style changes for the successful management of patients with IBS.
Conclusion: IBS is a multidimensional disorder and needs comprehensive clinical and diagnostic workup for making a precise diagnosis and personalised-treatment intervention. Medical acupuncture alone or combined with other holistic therapies produces good cost-effective results and improves quality of life of patients with IBS. This update calls for rigorous basic research to further explore the underlying pathophysiology of IBS along with mechanism of actions and effects of acupuncture in future.