Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Moringa oleifera Ethanolic Leaf Extract for the Management of Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Mice

Arshia Tariq, Umbreen Shahzad, Muhammad Shah Jahan, Zahid Abbas, Asia Rasool, Phoebe Nemenzo Calica

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/44623

Moringa oleifera is a valued medicinal plant. It is a rich source of nutrients, amino acid, antioxidants, anti-ageing and anti-inflammatory compounds. This study was carried out to assess the effect of the ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on tetrachloride CCL4 induced liver damage and gentamycin induced kidney damage in albino mice. Twenty-eight (28) mice were divided into seven groups subjected to the different treatments. Results from the serum enzyme assay revealed that the Moringa oleifera leaf ethanolic extract reduced the activities of the hepatic and renal enzymes voz: ALP, AST, ALT, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Moringa oleifera leaf extracts showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity which enhanced the recovery from hepatic damage induced by CCL4 and renal damage induced by gentamycin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae) Extracts against Diethylnitrosamine Induced Hepatocellular Damage

Jotham Yhi-Pênê N’do, Adama Hilou, Dramane Pare, Ernest Nogma Sombie, Tata Kadiatou Traore, Noufou Ouedraogo, André Tibiri, Latifou Lagnika

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/44474

Aims: Liver diseases are a major public health concern in the world. About 120 million cases of infectious HBV (the half of the world cases) are registered in sub-Saharan Africa. Burkina Faso is a country with a high endemicity of viral hepatitis. These diseases cause serious damage to the liver.

Study Design: This study aimed to assess the non-toxicity and the good hepatoprotective activities of Acanthospermum hispidum extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Animal model tests and in vitro hepatoprotection tests were conducted from June 2017 to March 2018.

Methodology: For in vivo hepatoprotective potential study, rats were pretreated with Acanthospermum hispidum extracts at different doses and intoxicated with diethylnitrosamine. For the evaluation of the toxicity of the extracts, the OCED protocols served as a benchmark.

Results: Ethanolic extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight protected the livers of animals against hepatotoxin attacks. The safety of this extract was verified at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg and repeated doses of 300 mg/kg. Approaches on the action mechanism of the extracts were assessed using the in vitro tests.

Conclusion: Acanthospermum hispidum extracts at the doses used showed hepatoprotective potential. The in vitro activities through the inhibition of the activity of certain enzymes involved in the physiology of hepatitis made it possible to carry out approaches on the mechanisms of action of the extracts. The proven safety combined with the hepatoprotection of the extracts justifies their use against hepatic infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Study of Pattern of Use of Orthodox and Herbal Medicine among Non-academic Staff of a Nigerian University

Ajoke Constance Akanmu, Kofowora Abimbola Odeyemi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/45359

Aim: To study the pattern of use of orthodox and herbal medicine among non-academic staff of a Nigerian University.

Study Design: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which a multistage sampling technique was employed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the main campus of University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State, Nigeria between January and June, 2017.

Methods: A total of 425 respondents were recruited in this investigation. Information gathered through the use of structured self-administered questionnaire was subjected to descriptive analysis.

Results: Hypertension (39.81%) was the common health condition recorded. Only 42.8% of the population sampled visits clinic when sick, 33.41% engage in orthodox self-medication, 19.4% practice herbal self-medication while 3.8% consults herbal practitioners for treatments. A total of 42.2% respondents do combine herbal and orthodox medicine to achieve better cure (60.7%) or quick recovery (38%). More than 87% had history of herbal medicine use, in treating ailments such as malaria and pile (78.3%) while 21.1% used both orthodox and herbal treatment simultaneously. 54% showed preference for orthodox drugs compared to 46% that preferred herbal treatments. The respondents were mostly introduced to the use of herbal medicine by family (44.2%) and friends (15.5%). However, 76.7.5% was optimistic of possible drug interaction in the combined herbal and orthodox drugs use but only 12.1% intimated their doctors of the initial herbal medicine used.

Conclusion: This study showed the practice of combined herbal-orthodox drug use among the participants, despite their knowledge of the associated risk. Therefore, there is need to further educate the populace about the health risk of herbal-orthodox drug combination while the health professionals have to proactively enquire and counsel patients regarding the potentials of adverse effect, drug toxicities and drug interaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effects of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Neem Plant and Hog Plum on the Liver Histology of Zidovudine Induced-Oxidative Stress Wistar Rats

C. O. Ubah, O. R. Asuquo, G. E. Oko, O. I. Ewaa, M. A. Eluwa

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/46306

The liver is an important organ which functions in the detoxification of drugs, toxins and metabolic waste products. It also plays a role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Exposure of the liver to oxidative stress leads to impairment of homeostasis which may result in malfunctioning of the liver. This study was carried out to access the efficacy in the administration of herbal extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) or Spondias mombin (hog plum) singly or In combination when ameliorating the effects of oxidative stress in wistar rats Liver. The study was carried out using 25 male adult wistar rats weighing 180-280 g. The rats were divided into five groups; group A, group B, group C, group D and group E. Group A is the negative control group that received rat chow and water, Group B is the positive control group that received the administration of 450mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug, Group C is the group that received 450 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug and  500 mg/kg body weight of Azadirachta indica group D received 450 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine and 500 mg/kg body weight of Spondias mombin, while group E is the group that received 450 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug and a combination of 500 mg/kg body weight of Azadirachta indica and Spondias mombin herbal extracts. The administration was carried out once a day using orogastric tube for a period of 21 days. At the end of the administration, the rats were sacrificed using chlorofoam inhalation technique and the liver was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formal saline. Light microscopic evaluation of the liver showed the normal histology of the liver which includes the presence of central vein of the liver, hepatocytes, and sinusoids in group A, sections of group B witnessed a distortion in the liver histology which is witnessed by shrinkage of central vein of the liver, degeneration of hepatocytes and a reduction in sinusoids, group C showed a normal histology of central vein of the liver, hepatocytes; and dilatation of liver sinusoids. Group D showed a normal histology of hepatocytes, sinusoids, with central vein of the liver, while groups E showed dilatation in the central vein of liver, dilatation of liver sinusoids and a normal histology of liver hepatocytes. Therefore the result shows that single administration of methanolic leaf extract of Azadiratcha indica or spondias mombin herbal extracts was more potent in ameliorating the effects of zidovudine induced oxidative stress on the Liver histology when compared with the synergistic effect of both herbal extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio–demographic Variables and Effects on Family Life in Obudu Urban, Cross River State, Nigeria

Justine Akunke Adie, Ignatius A. Beshel, Inyang Igri Ofor

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2018/46544

This study examined Socio – demographic variables and effects on family life in Obudu urban, Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to determine the extent to which income, employment, and educational status affect family life. These were translated into three (3) null hypotheses of the study. Data were generated from a 16 items questionnaire.  Survey research design was adopted for the study with 250 respondents randomly selected within Obudu urban.  Data generated were presented in tables using percentage and tested using chi – square statistical method. The findings of the study indicated that; income, employment, and educational statuses affect family life. The study recommended among others that government should create a favourable business atmosphere that will result in employment creation. Income earning opportunities should be promoted to improve the socio – economic wellbeing of the family. The people should be encourage to go to school which will help to improve their educational status and as well as enable them acquire administrative/business skills. The study concluded that Socio – demographic variables has significant effect on family life in Obudu urban, Cross River State, Nigeria.