Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Spondias mombin on the Kidneys Histology of Zidovudine Stress Induced Wistar Rats

C. O. Ubah, O. R. Asuquo, G. E. Oko, M. A. Eluwa

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2019/46169

The kidneys play a role in the maintenance of homeostasis by ensuring the excreton of waste and toxic substances from the body. Oxidative stress could be defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and an inability of the body system to scavenge the presence of free radicals. Intake of certain drugs and toxic substances exposes the kidneys to oxidative stress effects and this may lead to impairment of homeostasis and malfunctioning of the kidney. This study was carried out to access the efficacy in administration of single herbal extracts of either Azadirachta indica or Spondias mombin when compared to the combination of both herbal extracts in ameliorating the effects of oxidative stress in wistar rats kidney. The study was carried out using 25 male adult wistar rats of weight 180-200 g, the animals were randomly selected and were designated into groups A (Negative control group that received Rat chow and water, group B is the positive control group that received the administration of 450 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug, group C is the A. indica group that received 450 mg weight of zidovudine drug and 500 mg/kg body weight of methanoic leaf extract /kg body, group D is the S. mombin group that received 450 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine drug and 500mg/kg body weight of methanolic leaf extract and group E received a 450 mg/kg body weight of zidovudine and a combination of 500 mg/kg body weight of both methanolic leaf extracts of A. indica and S. mombin leaf. T administration was carried out once a day using orogastric tube for a period 21 days. At the end of the admnistration, the rats were sacrificed using chloroform inhalation technique and the kidney was fixed in 10% neutral buffered formal saline. Light mcroscopic evaluation of the kidney showed normal histological appearance of the kidney in group A as witnessed by the presence of glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), distal convoluted tubule (DCT), bowmans space (BS), while group B witnessed alterations in the histology of the liver as shown by the presence of haemorrhage in the glomerulus, shrinkage in the proximal and distal convoluted tubule and shrinkage of the bowmans space, group C and D witnesseed a restoration of the kidneys histology as evidenced by a reduction of haemorrhage in the glomerulus and shrinkage PCT and DCT. Group E showed an enlargement of the Bowmans space and shrinkage of the PCT and DCT. Hence the results proved the efficacy of single administration of herbal extracts in ameliorating the effects of oxidative stress when compared with the combination of the herbal extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Brachystegia eurycoma in Albino Wistar Rats

Uyoyoghene O. Ududua, Michael O. Monanu, Lawrence C. Chuku

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JOCAMR/2019/46623

Aims: The acute oral toxicity of ethanol extract of Brachystegia eurycoma was evaluated in Wistar albino rats.

Study Design: Sixteen male Wistar albino rats were assigned in four groups of four rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with a single dose of 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/kg bd. wt of extract respectively and observed for fourteen days.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria, from 1st of April 2018 to 15th of April, 2018.

Methodology: Healthy wistar albino rats weighing 120 – 180 g were fasted over-night prior to dosing. The animals were observed physically for toxic effect for the first twenty four (24) hours and once daily for the next thirteen (13) days for delayed toxicity. On the 14th day, the rats were anesthetized, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses while internal organs (kidney, heart, liver and spleen) were excised for histopathological examination.

Results: No mortality was observed at all doses of the extract. 2000 and 3500 mg/kg of the extract showed no toxic effect. A significant (p˂0.05) increase in alkaline phosphatase (240.0 ± 5.00 to 296.67 ± 7.57 IU/L units), serum albumin (19.46 ± 1.36 to 28.89 ± 2.50 g/dl units), total bilirubin (5.07 ± 0.15 to 5.73 ± 0.29 µmol/L units) and serum creatinine (68.23 ± 0.25 to 72.06 ± 1.90 µmol/L  units) was observed at 5000 mg/kg of the extract with the presence of distorted tubules, lobulated glomerulus in the kidney and inflammatory cells in liver sinusoid.

Conclusion: Ethanol leaf extract B. eurycoma may possess nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic potentials at very high dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Saponin Extracted from Phyllanthus niruri on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

V. A. Ajibade, V. O. Oluwasusi, M. F. Ibiyemi, O. A. Ajenifuja, O. Famurewa

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i130092

The antimicrobial activity of saponin extracted from Phyllanthus niruri was investigated on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to determine the structure spectra of the extracted purified saponin. The 13carbon NMR predicted on the basis of chemical shift that appeared in the resonances of 20 – 60 ppm gave a structure named Phylagenin-13-O-α-D-glucopyranoside and Phylagenin-25-O-β-D-glucopyra-noside. The susceptibility profile of MRSA determined by the agar-diffusion method showed that 97.0% and 90.0% of the test bacterium were resistant to Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole respectively and 60% of the bacterium was susceptible to saponin extract. The ability of saponin extracted from P. niruri to treat clinical manifestation like chest congestion and skin desquamation from which S. aureus resistant to conventional antibiotics have been isolated has been confirmed in this study. The fact that this extract exerted an inhibitory effect on MRSA indicates that they can potentially be further developed into antimicrobial clinically used agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of the N-hexane Fractions of Heinsia crinita Leaf Extract on Electrolyte Balance and Some Haematological Parameters of Alloxan-induced Diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

Bob I. A. Mgbeje, Esuabanga M. Asenye, Iwara A. Iwara, Godwin O. Igile

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i130094

Aim: Crude extracts of Heinsia crinita leaves have been found to have antidiabetic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the n-hexane fraction of Heinsia crinita leaf extract on electrolyte balance and some haematological indices of alloxan-induced diabetic albino Wistar rats.

Methodology: Thirty (30) albino Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120-180g were shared into five (5) groups of six animals each. Group 1 and 2 served as the normal control (NC) and diabetic control (DC) respectively and received placebo. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were diabetic treated group, and received 500mg/kg bw Metformin, 400mg/kg bw of crude extract (HC-C) and n-hexane fraction (HC-H) of Heinsia crinita respectively.

Results: The HC-H administered group, like the HC-C group, showed reversal of the observed increase in chloride ion (Cl-) and decrease in sodium ion (Na+) levels in DC group to close to those of the NC group and this effect compared well with the metformin–treated group. The HC-H group, unlike the HC-C group, did not show a reversal of the observed diabetic increase in in potassium ion (K+). The WBC count was increased in DC compared to NC. On treatment with HC–C, HC-H and metformin, the WBC count decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all the treated groups compared to DC group. The RBC count was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in DC compared to NC. Similarly, there was a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the DC group compared to the NC group. These decreases were significantly (p<0.05) reversed towards normal on treatment with HC-C and HC-H. The reversal was comparable to that of the standard drug metformin. Similarly the diabetes induced increase in platelet counts was significantly (P<0.05) reduced towards NC values on treatment with HC-H and HC-C.

Conclusion: The result show that the n-hexane fraction (HC-H), like the crude extract (HC-C), can protect against diabetes induced electrolyte imbalance and haematological disorders.

Open Access Review Article

The Potential Pharmacological and Medicinal Properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in the Drug Development of Phytomedicine

E. A. Tembe-Fokunang, Fokunang Charles, Nubia Kaba, Gatsing Donatien, Agbor Michael, Ngadjui Bonaventure

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i130093

An understanding of the chemistry of the secondary metabolites of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is essential and important due to its medicinal properties. Several studies have been done on the biological and pharmacological activities with a considerable progress made with respect to its biological activity and medicinal uses. The neem safety is known from its long communal ethno-pharmacological uses as a category one herbal product. It is readily available with great access to the local population at low cost and environmentally friendly. This paper attempts to give an insight into the biological activities of some of the compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the extract, clinical studies and medicinal applications along with their safety evaluations. Issues on the active chemical constituents of various formulations, commercially available neem products, are also mentioned along with their respective application.