Open Access Original Research Article

Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol from the Root of Mangifera indica and Their Biological Activities against Some Pathogens

Prince Joe Nna, Terrumun Amom Tor-Anyiin, Emmanuel Muluh

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i430105

Aim: Mangifera indica is a plant with several phytoconstituents which accounts for its trado-pharmacological uses such as treatment of syphilis, anemia, diabetes, diarrhea, mouth wound, ulcer, leucorrhea, fever, liver diseases, urinary tract infection, asthma, rheumatism, cough, colon cancer and dysentery. The present study was aimed at identifying and characterizing some of the active principles from root of the plant.

Places and Duration of Study: The isolation and characterization of the compounds was carried out at the Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS), University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom between October, 2018 to February, 2019 while the bioassay analysis was done at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Methodology: The root powder was subjected to Soxhlet extraction with ethyl acetate to obtain the crude extract, which was fractionated on column using hexane, and ethyl acetate in increasing ratios. The isolated components were tested for their antimicrobial activities against some plants and animal pathogens at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Results: White crystals were obtained which on spectra analysis (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR) were identified as mixture of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. The isolated compounds exhibited appreciable antimicrobial activities against some microbes, thus confirming the many ethnomedical uses of the plant.

Conclusion: The compounds isolated were identified as stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. The pathogens showed moderate sensitivity towards the isolated compounds in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiarrhoeal Effects of Hydromethanolic Leaves Extract of Ipomea asarifolia in Albino Rat Model

A. N. Ukwuani-Kwaja, I. L. Yakubu, A. S. Mustapha, B. Makun

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i430106

Aim: To evaluate the antidiarrhoea effect of hydromethanolic leave extract of I. asarifolia (HLEIA) on castor oil-induced diarrhea.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life sciences, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Kebbi state, Nigeria. P.M.B.1144. Kebbi State. Nigeria, between February 2015 and September 2016.

Methodology: In a continuous effort to search for bioactive agents from medicinal plants, the antidiarrhoea activity of I. asarifolia was investigated. The effect of hydromethanolic leave extract of I. asarifolia (HLEIA) on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal transit and intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) were assessed in albino rats. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard procedures while acute oral toxicity studies was determined using the staircase method.

Results: The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, terpenoid, tannin, saponin, phenols. The LD50 was estimated to be greater than 3000 mg/kg since there was no mortality recorded after 14 days of acute oral toxicity studies. Sub-chronic administration of graded doses (150 – 600 mg/kg) of HLEIA significantly (p<0.05) reduced diarrhoea episodes, decreased gastro intestinal movement and inhibited intestinal fluid accumulation compared to the control. The antidiarrhoea effect of treated group (600 mg/kg ) was comparable to that of the standard drug Loperamide.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study scientifically validate the use of I. asarifolia in the treatment of diarrhoea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Oxidative Changes in High Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Metformin and the Polyherbal Diawell

O. N. Briggs, E. O. Nwachuku, D. Tamuno-Emine, N. Nsirim, K. N. Elechi-Amadi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i430107

Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic, with a huge disease burden on the patients. This has led to an increase in the use of herbal remedies and combination therapies to reduce this burden.

Aim: This study evaluates the biochemical and oxidative changes in type 2 diabetic rats, treated with metformin and the polyherbal drug diawell.

Methodology: A total of 35 male Wistar albino rats weighing between 120-220 g were used for this study. The rats were placed on high fat diet, and diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body wt). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was determined using the glucose oxidase method. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were quantitatively determined by a rat-specific sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined using the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was determined by the ratio of TOS to TAS. Phytochemical analysis was also done on the herbal tablet.

Results: Mean FPG levels were significantly lower (p˂0.05) in all groups, except the group administered diawell, which was not significantly different (p>0.05), compared to the diabetic control. Mean FPG levels were significantly higher (p˂0.05) in the metformin group, diawell group, but showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the combination group, compared to the negative control. HOMA-IR was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the diabetic control compared to the negative control and treatment groups. The metformin and diawell groups had significantly higher (p˂0.05) HOMA-IR values, whereas the combination (metformin + diawell) showed no significant difference (p>0.05) when compared to the negative control. TOS was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the diabetic control compared to the negative control and treatment groups. The metformin and diawell groups had significantly higher (p˂0.05) TOS values, whereas the combination (metformin + diawell) showed no significant difference (p>0.05) when compared to the negative control. There was significantly lower (p˂0.05) TAS levels in the diabetic and treatment groups, compared to the negative control. OSI values were significantly lower (p˂0.05) in all groups when compared to the diabetic control. Also, OSI values were significantly higher (p˂0.05) in the treatment groups compared to the negative control.

Conclusion: There was depletion of antioxidant parameters and an increase in oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. Administration of metformin and the polyherbal tablet diawell individually, were not effective in correcting the pathological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes. However, the combination treatment produced a better glycaemic response and attenuated the oxidant status in the rats. Antioxidant therapy should be incorporated in diabetes management, and anti-diabetic herbals properly evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Literature Review of Traditional Siddha Diagnostic Method of Manikkadai Nool

Rakulini Raveendran, A. Rajarajeshwari, S. Victoria

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i430108

Introduction: Siddha Medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamil Nadu in South India and Sri Lanka. Traditionally, it is taught that the siddhars laid the foundation for this system of medicine. Siddha system has a unique diagnostic method to identify the diseases and their causes. Manikkadai nool is one of the diagnostic tool. It is explained in the Agasthiyar Soodamani Kajiru Soothiram by Saint Veadammamuni in Pathinen Siddhar Naadi Nool.

Aim: The primary aim of this study was to do a literature review and documentation of traditional siddha diagnostic method of Manikkadai Nool.

Study Setting: Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai from March to August 2019.

Methodology: It is a review of relevant literatures on traditional siddha diagnostic method of manikkadai nool. Data for the literature review were collected from related literatures and websites. Collected data were processed and statistically analyzed by a simple statistical method using Microsoft Excel.

Results and Discussion: Manikkadai Nool is a parameter to diagnose the state of disease by measuring the circumference of the wrist by means of a thread and then dividing the measured circumference with the patient’s finger. By this measurement the disease can be diagnosed. When the Manikkadai nool is 11 finger breadth (fbs), the person will be stout and he/she will live a healthy life for many years. When the Manikkadai nool measures from 4 to 6, it indicates bad prognosis of disease and the severity of the illness will be high and it leads to death. One of the research articles said that the cardiac diseases and uterine fibroids had a more predilection than other diseases of Manikkadai Nool measure falling in the fringe range of 10-10.75 finger breadths.

Conclusion: This literature review provides useful documented evidence on the siddha diagnostic methods of Manikkadai Nool. However, there is need to more clinical studies to validate the measurements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-arthritic Activity of a Herbal Formulation (Jointeez) in Albino Wistar Rats

Kemzi N. Elechi-Amadi, Edna O. Nwachuku, Davies G. Tamuno-Emine, Nsirim Nduka, Ojoye N. Briggs, Raphael Teme

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v7i430109

Aim: This study evaluated the anti-arthritic activity of a herbal formulation used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis in Nigeria.

Design: Thirty-five (35) albino wistar rats were used. They were divided into seven groups of seven rats each, with Group A serving as negative control while Group B was the positive control. Groups B, C, D and E were induced with rheumatoid arthritis by injecting 0.1 ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant into the right hind paw of each rat. The rats were treated with the standard drug and herbal formulation respectively for 28 days as follows: Group C (treated with a standard drug, Celebrex), Group D (treated with the herbal drug, Jointeez), Group E (treated with a combination therapy of Jointeez and Celebrex). At the end of the 28-day treatment period, the rats were anaesthesized with chloroform and sacrificed through puncture of the jugular vein. Five millilitres (5 ml) of blood samples were put into plain bottles for the analysis of biochemical parameters.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, from September to December, 2018.

Methodology:  The inflammatory markers, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein, were analysed using ELISA technique.

Results: The levels of TNF-α (p<0.001), IL-6 (p =0.01) and C-reactive protein (p <0.001) were significantly reduced in the treated rats compared to the positive control group. There were significant reduction in the paw diameters of the treated rats (p <0.001). The combination therapy used in this study did not offer significantly different therapeutic advantage over the monotherapies used in this study. The herbal formulation used in this study offered similar therapeutic activities as the orthodox drug used in this study.

Conclusion: The herbal formulations can be used as safe therapies for the management of rheumatoid arthritis in our population. It is recommended that herbal formulations be integrated into our healthcare system in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.