Open Access Original Research Article

Hydroethanolic Extract of Buchholzia coriacea Seeds Alleviates LPS Induced Liver Injury in Rat via Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Actions

Ayokanmi Ore, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Abideen Idowu Adeogun, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v8i230116

Aim: This study evaluates the hepatoprotective effects of hydroethanolic extract of (defatted) Buchholzia coriacea seed (HEBCS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory liver injury in the rat.

Method: Thirty male albino rats (120–130 g) were assigned into five groups (n=6/ group). Group I (Control) and II (LPS) received distilled water orally (p.o.) for seven days while animals in groups III, IV and V were administered HEBCS at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) p.o. daily for 7 days. LPS was injected on the 7th day at a single dose of 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the rats in group II, and groups III, IV and V. Six hours after LPS injection, blood was collected to prepare serum, and liver was removed for preparation of homogenate, histopathology and immunofluorescence staining. Biomarkers of liver function (ALT, AST and ALP) and oxidative stress (NO, SOD, CAT and MDA) were assessed. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) and inducible protein (C-reactive protein) were also assessed.

Results: Results showed significant amelioration of liver function markers and levels of pro-inflammatory proteins by HEBCS. Histopathological studies showed a reduction in inflammatory cells and improvement in liver structure in animals treated with HEBCS.

Conclusion: Data from the current study show that HEBCS possesses hepatoprotective effects against LPS induced inflammatory liver injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Significance of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Non-communicable Disease by Kani Tribes in Papanasam, Tirunelveli District

R. Sathiya, A. Manoharan, A. Rajarajeshwari

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v8i230117

The significance of medicinal plants used by the ethnic group of people (Kani/Kanikaran) of Karaiyar, Papanasam through an ethnobotanical survey for treating Non-communicable diseases (NCD) is documented. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey. Sample size in the survey covers 30 tribal people (men-13, women-17) to analyse various factors and their relationship to the diseases.  The survey has included the age range, diseases frequency, gender stats, occupation, BMI, habits and the medicinal practices used. It is estimated that 67% of people still use traditional means for the treatment of diseases. Major medicinal plants used are indigenous to their geographical area which revealed high esteem of ethnobotanical significance and proven to be an effective and sustainable means of treating Non-communicable diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effects of the Anti-diabetic Polyherbal Drug Diawell in Combination with Metformin on Liver and Lipid Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

O. N. Briggs, E. O. Nwachuku, H. Brown, K. N. Elechi-Amadi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v8i230118

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most important diseases worldwide. It affects several organ systems including the liver and lipid metabolism. Many herbal formulations have shown anti-diabetic potential, however, their safety and efficacy remain a debate in the medical community.

Aim: This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of the anti-diabetic polyherbal drug diawell in combination with metformin on liver enzyme and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic rats.

Methodology: A total of 35 male Wistar albino rats weighing between 120-220 g were used for this study. The rats were placed on high fat diet, and diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body wt). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was determined using the glucose oxidase method. Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG) and High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined using enzymatic methods. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated using the Friedewald equation. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined using Reitman-Frankel method, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined using the colorimetric phenolphthalein method. Liver sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique, and phytochemical analysis was also done on the herbal tablet.

Results: The results show no significant differences in mean TC levels in all groups. TG level was significantly higher in the diabetic control when compared to the negative control. There were no significant differences in TG levels in the metformin group, and diawell group when compared to the diabetic control. TG levels in the combination group (metformin + diawell) was significantly lower versus the diabetic control, and showed no significant difference compared to the negative control. HDL-C was significantly higher in the negative control when compared to the diabetic control and the treatment groups. There were no significant differences in HDL-C levels in all the treatment groups, when compared to the diabetic control. LDL-C levels were significantly lower in the negative control compared to the diabetic control and treatment groups. There were no significant differences in LDL-C levels in all the treatment groups, when compared to the diabetic control. The diabetic control had significantly higher ALT, AST and ALP levels compared to the negative control and treatment groups. All the treatment groups showed no significant differences in ALT and AST levels compared to the negative control. Liver sections of the negative control showed normal histoarchitecture. The diabetic control showed inflammation and fatty deposition. The treatment groups showed a nearly normal histoarchitecture, with fatty deposits.

Conclusion: High fat diet in combination with 45 mg/kg of STZ produced significant diabetes in the Wistar rats with dyslipidaemia and elevated liver enzyme levels. Metformin and the polyherbal tablet diawell had no impact on the lipid levels as it did not correct the dyslipidaema, however, the treatments showed hepatoprotective potentials and restored liver enzyme levels to normal. Lipid lowering drugs should be included in the management of type 2 diabetes, and there should be proper evaluation of anti-diabetic herbal products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Zingiber officinale Rhizome in Testosterone Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Rat Model

U. A. Obisike, N. Boisa, E. O. Nwachuku, N. Nduka

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v8i230120

Aims: To assess the antioxidant effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ginger rhizome in testosterone induced prostate hyperplasic male rats.

Study Design: The study was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental aspect of this study was conducted at the animal house, Department of Pharmacology, University of Port Harcourt between April and September, 2019.

Methodology: Sixty (60) adult albino male wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into 12 groups of 5 rats each and fed with commercial rat diet and clean drinking water. Aqueous and ethanolic extractions of Ginger rhizome seed were prepared using the maceration method. BPH was induced in rats after they submitted to bilateral orchiectomy by daily injections of testosterone propionate (TP) (4 mg/kg b.wt.sc). Rats were treated with 500 or 1500 mg/kg b.wt. of aqueous or ethanoI extracts of Zingiber officinale (Zo) rhizome, dutasteride or in combination.  Administration of extracts was done by gavage. Plasma total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, were analysed using sandwich ELISA Kits by Shanghai Korain Biotech Co., Ltd, China, while oxidative stress indices (OSI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22.0 of Windows Stat Pac and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The results showed that exogenous induction of BPH in rats significantly increased (p=0.000) plasma TOS and OSI while TAS and SOD activities were reduced. However, 500 and 1500 mg/kg b.wt. of Zo rhizome administered orally after exogenous induction of BPH had been established for 15 days, significantly decreased (p=0.000) TOS, OSI and significantly improved the activities of antioxidant parameters like SOD and TAS. Non-significantly increased mean TAS and SOD were seen in a combination of both extracts with dutasteride, possibly suggestive of synergistic interaction between the herbs and the drug. Simultaneous administration of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Zo rhizome with TP for 30 days also showed antioxidant qualities, although the effects were statistically not better than values for treatments done when BPH was established before treatment. Ethanolic extracts of Zo rhizome produced better antioxidant effects compared to the aqueous extracts.

Conclusion: From the findings, we conclude that Zo rhizome can ameliorate oxidative stress and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Open Access Review Article

The Place of Spiritual and Traditional Beliefs in Stroke Rehabilitation in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scoping Review

Martins Chidi Nweke, Christian Kanayo Eze

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2019/v8i230119

Aims: This systematic scoping review aimed at mapping evidence available on the impact of spiritual and traditional beliefs on perception of stroke vis-a-vis stroke rehabilitation in sub-Saharan Africa.

Study Design: Systematic scoping review.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in June, 2019 as a preliminary step to study underway in the University of Nigeria Enugu Campus.

Methodology: Literature search was undertaken of PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost Academic Search Complete and PsycINFO. The selection process was aided with use of EndNote X8. A total of 17 peer-reviewed articles were included. Thematic contents analysis was done using NVIVO 12. Five emerging themes were synthesized. Results show that a small but significant number of the respondents possessed poor knowledge and perception of stroke, and this affected the health seeking behaviors.

Results: Although many of the participants would seek formal healthcare when a stroke occurs, some believed stroke is purely a spiritual event and should be addressed spiritually, while a few advocated for integration of traditional and orthodox healthcare approaches. Being a clinical worker, educated or a Christian was associated with good knowledge of stroke. For the participants who preferred spiritual or traditional approach to formal healthcare, traditional or religious inclination, level of education, hospital cost and hospital-related ill-treatment are the propelling factors.

Conclusion: Spiritual and traditional beliefs possess a significant place in stroke rehabilitation in sub-Saharan Africa. We commend that holistic approach with a spiritual component be adopted in stroke rehabilitation across sub-Saharan Africa.