Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Crude Oil Exploration on the Physical and Mental Health of Residents of Okpai Community, Delta State, Nigeria

Okwuezolu, Frederick Adinkwu, Adjene Josiah Obaghwarhievwo, Chime Helen Ego

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i130131

One of the adverse effects that may accompany prolonged exposure to gas flaring (as with Niger Delta region of Nigeria) is increasing incidences of health anomalies amidst inhabitants. Current study investigated the effects of oil exploration and exploitation on the physical and mental health of residents of Okpai community in Ndokwa East Local Government Area of Delta State, southern Nigeria. A purposive sampling technique was used to draw a total of three hundred and forty (340) participants from the estimated population of Okpai community who have lived for a minimum of 3 years within the targeted area. Participants were then randomly recruited into three groups of equal number of interviewees of age range 18-30 (30%), 31-45 (37%) and 18-30 (33%) respectively. Majority of the respondents were in the age group of 18-30 (83%), with only 17% from 31-45 year old age group, similar to group 1. Following administration of questionnaire to participants, Socio-demographic variables were obtained after which their informed consents and approval was given. Obtained results were expressed in simple percentages, while presenting in appropriate statistical tables and graphs. Upon analysis, study observed an increase in the percentage of crude oil exploration on the physical and mental health of Okpai residents, suggesting that crude oil exploration greatly negatively affected the health status of Okpai community inhabitants. Study also established from the participants’ perception that the oil companies appeared not to be concerned or cares about the area investigated. Also from participants’ assertions, the consumption of contaminated fish and water created health problems. Participants also felt their healthcare needs were marginalized and ignored by representatives from oil companies and the local government. Most respondents described simply dealing with physical health ailments on their own or visiting their local chemist for treatments. Further studies aimed at corroborating these findings are highly recommended. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Hijama Practices and the Perceived Health Benefits among the People of Al-Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

Khawla Al-luhaidan, M. S. Prarthana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 13-21
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i130132

Introduction: Hijama (wet cupping therapy) is a form of traditional alternative medicine that has been in practice for thousands of years and was adopted by many different cultures. Hijama practice in the Arabic medical literature has been reported to treat many diseases differing in etiology and pathogenesis. The aim objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Hijama among the Qassim population in Saudi Arabia. To create awareness regarding good practices and to assess the effectiveness of Hijama.

Methods: This observational type of cross-sectional survey included 201 participants who were all practising Hijama and were from the Qassim region. Data was collected using the self-administered online questionnaire and entered in Excel and analyzed using EpiInfo7 statistical software. 

Results: Most of the study participants were female 70%. About 39% of them have a bachelor's degree. 61% know Hijama contradictions. Hijama was performed by traditional healers in 14% of the participants and at Hijama centers by 64% of the participants. About 72% of the participants notice effectiveness by practising Hijama. Only 7% of them had suffered complications.

Conclusion: The study revealed Hijama can be a simple effective economic alternative treatment that can be used to treat many ailments like back, shoulder, neck pain, headache and migraine pain. It is associated with a minimal side effect. There is still a need to create awareness among the people to go for clinical centres to perform Hijama. Future research is needed to support its therapeutic benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Variation of a Poly-herbal Formula According to Its Preparation Method: Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis

R. L. D. S. Ranasinghe, R. H. S. K. De Silva, L. D. A. M. Arawwawala, H. G. S. G. Wijesiriwardhana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i130133

Madhyama Rasnadi decoction, one of the poly-herbal decoctions used in Ayurveda medicine is especially indicated for inflammatory conditions. The literature provides three different preparation methods of this decoction viz; Sri Lankan Traditional method (Method 1) and methods described in the texts Sharangadhara Samhita (Method 2) and Bhaishajya Ratnavali (Method 3). The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the phytochemical profiles of these three preparation techniques. Phytochemical profile analysis was carried out by (i) investigation of the extractable matter in 1 ml of decoction, (ii) development of Thin Layer Chromatography profiles and (iii) qualitative/quantitative determination of major phytoconstituents. Results revealed that the extractable matter of methods 1, 2 and 3 was 310±0 mg/ml, 420±0 mg/ml and 180±0 mg/ml, respectively. Differences (in terms of the number of spots and intensity) were observed in TLC fingerprint profiles, and phytochemicals such as phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenoids were present in all three types of decoctions. Gallic acid and quercetin were taken as standards to express the results of polyphenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Total polyphenolic contents of decoctions prepared according to methods 1, 2 and 3 were 121.68±0.60, 178.40±0.56, 86.20±0.25 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract respectively. Total flavonoid contents of decoctions prepared according to methods 1, 2 and 3 were 69.45± 0.80, 129.30±0.65, 52.64± 0.50 mg quercetin acid equivalents/g extract respectively. In conclusion, more phytochemicals are concentrated on the decoction that made of method 2. The study opens more vistas of clinical applicability of Madhyama Rasnadi decoction, where further randomised case-control studies are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antileishmanial Activity of Clerodendrum myricoides and Salvadora persica Plant Extracts against Leishmania major

Esther N. M. Maina, Virginia N. Njau, Yahaya Gavamukulya

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 29-44
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i130134

Introduction: Clerodendrum myricoides and Salvadora persica have been reported in management of leishmaniasis which is one of the neglected tropical diseases. The study aimed at undertaking phytochemical analysis as well as investigating the in vitro antileishmanial activity of Clerodendrum myricoides and Salvadora persica extracts on promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania major.

Materials and Methods: Solvent extraction of the stem parts of the two plants was performed using water, methanol, petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), anti-amastigote and nitric oxide production assays were carried out to demonstrate antileishmanial activity of these plant extracts against the two forms of Leishmania major parasite species: promastigote and amastigote. Cytotoxicity assay was then conducted to assess their safe use as herbal medicinal products.

Results: Both plants showed presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinones and saponins. The Clerodendrum myricoides water extract demonstrated the best potential antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major promastigotes (MIC=625 μg/ml). The dichloromethane and petroleum ether extract were nontoxic to vero cells but showed moderate to weak activity against Leishmania major promastigotes (MIC=1250 μg/ml; 2500 μg/ml) and amastigotes respectively. The Salvadora persica ethyl acetate, successive methanol and dichloromethane extracts recorded the most potential activity towards both Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes.

Conclusions: All Salvadora persica and Clerodendrum myricoides extracts have potential antileishmanial activity and may offer a cheaper alternative to the more expensive pentavalent antimonials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Antioxidant Potential of Hypoestes rosea Leaf in Lead-acetate-induced Albino Rats

F. K. Uwikor, E. O. Nwachuku, F. Igwe, E. S. Bartimaeus

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i130135

Hypoestes rosea has been used as a traditional medicine in the Niger delta for dysfunction of the endocrine system. However, there has been no known study on the effects of hypoestes rosea on oxidative stress. In this study we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of Hypoestes rosea (AEHR) leaf on oxidative stress markers of lead acetate induced male and female albino rats at acute and sub-chronic stages in pre-treatment and post-treatment phases. Animals were divided into 17 groups of five each for both sexes in the treatment groups, while the positive control group had 10 animals in each sex. 8 groups were for the acute phase of the study for 21 days in each sex, while 8 were for 35 days for the sub chronic stage of the study. Negative Control (NC) group received rat feed only, Experimental (EC) group received 100 mg/kg bwt/day for 21 days at acute and 35 days for sub chronic.  Positive Control (PC) group received 60mg/kg b.wt per day of lead acetate for 35 days. The other 3 groups received 100 mgkg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg b. wt respectively for 14 and 28 days either as pre treatment or post treatment, for both sexes of the albino rats. Samples were taken at the end of the study period through the jugular vein under chloroform anaesthesia. Results showed lead acetate induced oxidative stress in the rats, evidenced by the significantly decreased (p < 0.05) Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) between the NC and PC groups. The plant in a dose dependent pattern was able to significantly (p < 0.05), reverse the effect of lead acetate in the Post and pre treatment phases. Our study also shows that dose dependent AEHR extract significantly reduced the impact of lead in oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, consumption of AEHR by albino rats could help protect against lead acetate induced oxidative stress.