Open Access Original Research Article

Amelioration of Extra-articular Effects Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Anti-arthritic Herbal Formulations

Kemzi N. Elechi-Amadi, Ojoye N. Briggs, Boma H. Opusunju, Ebirien-Agana S. Bartimaeus, Edna O. Nwachuku

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i230137

Aim: This study investigated the ability of some herbal formulations to ameliorate extra-articular effects of some herbal formulations used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis in Nigeria.

Methodology: Forty-nine (49) female albino Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into seven groups: A, B, C, D, E, F and G of seven rats each, with Group A serving as negative control while Group B was a positive control. Groups B, C, D, E, F and G were induced with rheumatoid arthritis by injecting 0.1 ml of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the right hind paw of each rat. The rats were treated with the standard drug and herbal formulations respectively for 28 days as follows: Group C (treated with a standard drug, Celebrex), Group D (treated with the herbal drug, Jointeez), Group E (treated with a herbal drug, Arthropower), Group F (treated with combination therapy of Jointeez and Celebrex) and Group G (treated with combination therapy of Arthropower and Celebrex). At the end of the 28-day treatment period, the rats were anaesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed through puncture of the jugular vein. Five millilitres (5 ml) of blood samples were put into plain bottles for the analysis of biochemical parameters and 3 ml into K3EDTA bottles for haematological analysis. The lipid parameters were analysed using Mindray autoanalyzer while haematological parameters were determined using Sysmex haematology auto analyzer.

Results: Total cholesterol (p<0.001), HDL (p=0.005) and LDL (p=0.004) were significantly reduced in the treated rats compared to the positive control group. Conversely, Packed Cell Volume (p<0.001) and Haemoglobin levels (p<0.001) were significantly reduced in the positive control rats compared to the treated rats. However, Total WBC count was significantly higher in the positive control rats than in the treated rats (p=0.001). The combination therapies used in this study did not offer a significantly different therapeutic advantage over the monotherapies used. The herbal formulations gave therapeutic effects on the extra-articular effects similar to that obtained from the orthodox drug used in this study. 

Conclusion: The herbal formulations can be used as alternative regimens for rheumatoid arthritis. It is recommended that herbal formulations be considered for integration into our healthcare system for the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Workplace Violence among Primary Healthcare Workers in Enugu Metropolis

H. O. Stanley, O. P. Nwosu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i230138

Introduction: Work place violence in health-care facilities are on the rise and are routinely underreported.

Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of workplace violence among primary health-care workers in Enugu metropolis.

Materials and Methods: The participants were selected via multi–stage sampling method. A total of 117 out of 135 questionnaires from primary health-care workers in Enugu metropolis were collated and analyzed with the aid of frequency tables and charts.

Results: The results showed that the primary health-care workers are exposed to verbal and non-verbal harassment when working alone in shifts as a contributing factor to workplace violence, subjected to their type of work. This violence most times not reported owing to fear, stigmatization and mistrust of the workers that management will not take their cases serious, this, ultimately impinge on the overall job performance, revenue generation as well as job integrity. Based on the influence of workplace violence on work and life of primary health-care workers about 61.5% of primary health-care workers agrees that workplace violence experience leads to fear and impaired performance and majority agrees that workplace violence does not depends on tribe and religion. Based on predictors of workplace violence, about 69.4%, 69% and 69.1% of primary health-care workers agrees that level of education, work cadre and years of experience influences workplace violence respectively.

Conclusion: The study shows that primary health-care workers are exposed to different workplace violence: physical, threat, verbal and sexual harassment. Also, primary health-care workers agree that patient relatives (31.9%) and colleague (17.4%) are the main sources of workplace violence mostly due to misunderstanding. Out of 75 victims of workplace violence 66.7% reported their cases while about 53.6% did not report. Victims of workplace violence should be encouraged to speak up.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco) Promotes Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Oluwafisayomi Tesleem Balogun

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 31-45
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i230139

Objective: The health hazards of tobacco smoking and diabetes mellitus constitute major and diverse global burden. The influence of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) powder and ethanolic extract on excised wound of diabetic rats was investigated.

Methods: The wounds of diabetic adult male wistar rats in groups of six were dressed with tobacco powder (TPD), tobacco ethanolic extract (TED), sofratulle (SD) and normal saline (ND) daily till healed. There were composite control groups namely TPC, TEC, SC and NC.

Every three days, the wound areas were measured in order to calculate the mean wound contraction rates. Granulation tissue was biopsied from an animal per group on day 3,6 and 9 for histopathological evaluation and after healing, the scars of the remaining animals were biopsied for histology.

Results: On day 3, the tobacco powder diabetic (TPD) group had the highest mean wound contraction rate and even higher than its control group. At day 18, the tobacco extract control group had the least mean wound contraction rate. The mean wound contraction rates of some diabetic groups were significantly higher than those of the respective control on day 3 and 12 (TPD vs TPC; TED vs TEC). The TPD mean wound contraction rates were significantly higher than those of ND on day 3,6,9 and 12. Histology of the granulation tissues of the tobacco diabetic groups was similar to those of the other groups. Sections of the wound scars revealed stratified squamous epithelia with abundant collagen fibres and blood vessels in all the groups. It was also observed that the scars were more fibrous than cellular with dermal appendages observed in some of the groups.

Conclusion: Topical application of Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco) promotes wound healing with scars comparable to those of rats dressed with sofratulle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Classification of 4448 Diseases in Siddha System of Medicine – A Review

Rakulini Raveendran

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i230140

Introduction: Siddha Medicine is a system of Traditional Medicine originating in ancient Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu in South India. Traditionally, it is taught the siddhars laid the foundation for this system of Medication. Agastyar is considered the first Siddhar and the guru of all siddhars. Siddha system considers the human body as a collection of tri-humors & seven basic elements. Vatham, Pitham & Kapham are the tri-humors which are the life constituents of the human body. The equilibrium of humors is consider as health & its disturbance or imbalance leads to disease.

Aim and Objective: The aim of the study is to identify the 4448 diseases according to the Siddha Literatures.

Results and Discussion: 4448 diseases are mentioned in Agasthiyar 2000, Angathipatham, Noi Naadal Noi Muthal Naadal part I and Theriyar vaakadam. Siddhar Aruvai Maruthuvam book stated that Head and neck diseases are 1008. Diseases are classified according to anatomical structures of body parts, tri humors and diseases. Totally, 93 diseases are explained in all five books. In Noi Naadal Noi Muthal Naadal Part II, 51 diseases and its types and In Yugi Vaiththiya Sinthamani, 27 diseases and its types are explained in the books. Totally, 544 and 431 Number of diseases are explained in the text Noi Naadal Noi Muthal Naadal Part II and Yugi Vaiththiya Sinthamani respectively.

Conclusion: This study has given quite evidence about 4448 diseases. These collected information are helpful for further studies in types of diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Hepatoprotective Potential of Hura crepitans L.: A Review of Ethnomedical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies

Oluwole S. Owojuyigbe, Caleb K. Firempong, Christopher Larbie, Gustav Komlaga, Benjamin O. Emikpe

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i230136

Herbal medicines are the main source of treatment of diseases in non-urban centres of the developing world. Secondary metabolites obtained from herbal sources contain bioactive phytochemicals, many of which have been the origin for the development of novel pharmaceutical drugs. Hura crepitans L. (Euphorbiaceae) or sandbox tree has been beneficial in many ethnomedicinal applications as a purgative, emetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and the treatment of leprosy. Toxicological, phytochemical and bactericidal studies have also been documented. This paper reviews the potential of the Hura crepitans plant in protecting the liver against drug-induced toxicity. The paper dwells extensively on the ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the plant. In achieving the above, intensive analyses of books and published peer-reviewed journal articles were carried out using credible scientific databases. Four main phytochemicals were revealed to be contained in Hura crepitans stem-bark. Their protective effects were enunciated using animal models. However much more biochemical studies need to be done to establish the hepatoprotective potentials of the various parts and various phytochemicals of Hura crepitans with the need for more preclinical and clinical studies. We, therefore, present in this paper efforts to elucidate and bring to the fore the therapeutic potentials of Hura crepitans plant.