Open Access Original Research Article

Siddha Diagnostic Methodology of Envagai thervu for Gunmam Patients at Government Siddha Medical College & Hospital, Palayamkottai

Rakulini Raveendran

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i330141

Introduction: Siddha Medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamil Nadu in South India and Sri Lanka. Traditionally, it is taught that the siddhars laid the foundation for this system of medicine. Siddha system has a unique diagnostic method to identify the diseases and their causes. According to the Saint Theraiyar, there are eight tools of diagnosis: symptoms of the body, the colour, the voice, the eyes, the tongue, stools, urine and the pulse.

Aim: The aim of this study was to study the siddha diagnostic methodology of envagaithervu for gunmam patient sat government siddha medical college & hospital, palayamkottai.

Study Setting: Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai from April to August 2019.

Methodology: It is an observational study. After identifying the eligible subjects, Data will be collected by using the interview administrated questionnaire & relevant data will be collected by measurement. Collected data were processed and statistically analysed by a simple statistical method using Microsoft Excel.

Results and Discussion: Majority of the gunmam subjects were females (60%) and age group within 41-60 & 51-60 years. The maximum number of subjects were observed in Pitha Kaalam. Majority of the gunmam subjects had Abdominal pain, eructation, generalized body weakness. Vali azhalnaadi (38%) and azhalvalinaadi (32%) were observed in majority of the gunmam subjects. Neikuri was observed as valiazhal & azhalvali in gunmam subjects.

Conclusion: This study has given quite evidence for literatures. These collected information are helpful for further studies in gunmam.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Analysis of the Phytochemical Contents of Different Anatomical Parts of Ripe Solanum aethiopicum Linneaus Fruits

David Adesoye Tunwagun, Olalekan Amos Akinyemi, Titilayo Eunice Ayoade, Sunday Faith Oyelere

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i330142

Aims: To determine qualitatively the amount of alkaloids, saponin, tannin, volatile oil, phenol and flavonoids in the different anatomical parts of ripe Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruits.

Methodology: Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruits were purchased from Sabo market, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. The fruits were separated with a razor into four (4) anatomical parts (the epicarp, mesocarp, endocarp, and seed) after washing with distilled water. 1gram of each anatomical parts of the fruit were soaked in 20mls of distilled water,1% volume per volume (v/v), 2% v/v, 3%v/v, 4%v/v and 5%v/v of ethanol, ethylacetate and methanol separately. The mixtures were left for 24 hours after which they were sieved to obtain the extracts. The presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, volatile oil, phenol and flavonoid were determined qualitatively in the extracts at selected concentrations.

Results: The results obtained showed that alkaloids are more concentrated in the mesocarp of Solanum aethiopicum Linn; volatile (essential) oil is more pronounced in the mesocarp and endocarp of Solanum aethiopicum Linn; saponin is confirmed in all anatomical parts of the fruit at reasonable quality except in the seed; tannin is found to be moderately present only in the aqueous extract of mesocarp of Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruit while the presence of phenol and flavonoids were confirmed in trace amount at few tested concentrations of the extracts.

Conclusion: Taken together, the presence of a variety of phytochemicals in the different anatomical parts of Solanum aethiopicum Linn fruit indicate that the fruit might be pharmacologically active against a number of diseases. However, this should be subjected to subsequent researches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidants Supplementation on Renal, Hepatic and Cardiac Function Markers in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Mellitus Wister Rats

Adline Erinma Ben-Chioma, Abiola Abubakar Sheudeen, Nwidum Leyiga Dornu, Ichebadu Isaac, Edna Ogechi Nwachuku, Aminayanate Mac Aworu, Ibioku Elekima

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 23-39
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i330143

Aim: To evaluate antioxidants supplementation (selenium and vitamin E) on renal, hepatic and cardiac function markers in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in Wister rats.

Study Design: Rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups with each group consisting of 5 rats. The treatment pattern involved the induction of hyperglycaemia in the rats followed by oral administration of selenium and vitamin E supplements singularly and in combination. The groups are as follow:

Group A: Alloxan induced diabetic Rats treated with selenium (0.02 mg/kg) for 35 days.

Group B: Alloxan induced diabetic Rats treated with Vitamin E (70.0 mg/kg) for 35 days.

Group C: Alloxan induced diabetic Ratstreated with both Selenium and Vitamin E (0.02 mg/kg + 70.0 mg/kg) for a period of 35 days.

Group D:  Alloxan induced diabetic Rats without any treatment (Positive control) for 35 days.

Group E: Rats in this group were fed normally for 35 days without induction and treatment (Negative control).

Place and Duration of the Study Area: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria over a period of 9 months (January, 2019 – September, 2019).

Methodology: After the inducement of hyperglycaemia in the rats (Group A – D) with a single dose intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 140mg/kg body weight of alloxan hydrate, treatment with the antioxidants (selenium and Vitamin E) was performed for 35 days. At the end of 35 days, the animals were allowed to fast for 18 hours and sacrificed. Plasma specimen collected was used for the assay of Na+, K+, HCO3, urea, creatinine, cardiac troponin I, LDH, AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, protein, albumin globulin and MDA while renal, hepatic and cardiac tissues collected were used for histological investigations.

Results: Significantly lower values were seen in Na+, K+, HCO3 and conjugated bilirubin in the diabetic rats without antioxidants supplementation (group D) when compared to diabetic rats with antioxidants supplementation of selenium and vitamin E (group A, B & C) and non-diabetic control group (group E). There were no significant differences seen when Group A, B, C and E were compared among one another. Also, significantly higher values were seen in AST, ALT, ALP, Unconjugated bilirubin, urea, creatinine, cardiac troponin I and MDA in the diabetic rats without antioxidants supplementation (group D) when compared with diabetic rats treated with antioxidants supplements of selenium and vitamin E (group A, B & C) and non-diabetic control group (group E). However, no significant differences were seen in LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin and total bilirubin at P=.05. Histological findings in the kidneys, liver and cardiac tissues of the rats treated with antioxidants supplement showed recovery tendencies compared to diabetic rats without antioxidant supplementation.

Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that the use of selenium or vitamin E singularly or in combination has ameliorative effect on cardiac, renal and hepatic function markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. However, the combination of selenium and vitamin E had no synergistic advantage over the use of selenium or vitamin E alone. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Phytochemical and Vitamin Compositions of Cucumis metuliferus (Horned Melon) Rind

Achikanu Cosmas Ezekaibeya, Ani Onuabuchi Nnenna, Onyishi Chukwuebuka Kenechukwu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i330144

Cucumis metuliferus also known as horned melon is a plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family which has been reported to have medicinal value. Every part of the plant is consumed, except the rind, although edible is mostly discarded as waste. Solid food waste contributes to greater percentage of pollution in our environment. Therefore, to minimize food wastage, the nutritional and medicinal value of the rind need to be evaluated to promote its usage. Hence, this study was aimed to investigate the proximate, phytochemical and vitamin compositions of the rind of Cucumis metuliferus. The analyses were carried out using standard methods. The proximate analyses showed that the rind contained high concentrations of carbohydrate (54.84%), moisture (18.40%) and crude fibre (11.34%); moderate concentration of crude fat (8.89%) with low concentration of ash (3.59%) and crude protein (2.95%). From the result of the phytochemical analysis, the rind contained varied concentrations of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids and phenol. The result also showed that the rind is rich in vitamins C, E, D, B9 and A with appreciable concentrations of vitamins B2, K, B1 and β-carotene which were all above the recommended daily vitamin allowance. The high concentration of these nutrients and phytochemicals proves that the rind of Cucumis metuliferus has nutritive and medicinal value. Therefore, the rind could be useful as food supplements and in pharmaceutical preparations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-hyperglycaemic, Anti-dyslipidaemic and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Polyherbal Mixture Diarth in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Ojoye N. Briggs, Kemzi N. Elechi-Amadi, Chrissie Okobia, Ferdinand C. Ezeiruaku

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 51-57
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i330145

Aim: This study evaluates the anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-dyslipidaemic and hepatoprotective effects of the polyherbal mixture diarth, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: A total of 35 male Wistar albino rats weighing between 120-140 g were used for this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared alloxan-monohydrate (140 mg/kg body weight). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was determined using the glucose oxidase method. Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG) and High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined using enzymatic methods. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated using the Friedewald’s equation. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined using Reitman-Frankel method, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined using the colorimetric phenolphthalein method. Phytochemical analysis was done on the herbal mixture, using classical methods.

Results: The results revealed the presence of the phytochemicals saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and tannins in the polyherbal mixture diarth. The results revealed significantly lower FPG levels in the negative control and treatment groups compared to the diabetic control. FPG level was significantly higher in the glibenclamide treated group, but showed no significant differences in the diarth group and the combination group (glibenclamide + diarth), compared to negative control. TC levels in the diabetic control was significantly higher compared to the negative control and treatment groups. There were no significant differences in TC levels in the negative control and the treatment groups. The diabetic control had significantly higher TG level compared to the negative control. TG level in the glibenclamide treated group was not significantly different from that of the diabetic control. TG level in the diarth treated group was significantly lower than the diabetic control, but also significantly higher than that of the negative control. TG levels in the combination group (diarth + glibenclamide) was significantly lower than the diabetic control, and showed no significant difference compared to the negative control. The negative control and treatment groups had significantly higher HDL-C levels compared to the diabetic control. The treatment groups showed no significant difference in HDL-C levels, compared to the negative control. The negative control and treatment groups had significantly lower LDL-C levels compared to the diabetic control. The treatment groups showed no significant difference in LDL-C levels, compared to the negative control. The results show significantly elevated ALT, AST and ALP in the diabetic rats compared to the negative control and treatment groups. The treatment groups showed no significant differences in ALT and AST levels compared to the negative control.

Conclusion: 140 mg/kg body weight of alloxan produced significant diabetes in the Wistar rats with dyslipidaemia and elevated liver enzyme levels. Treatment with the polyherbal mixture diarth showed anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-dyslipidaemic and hepatoprotective effects. The effects were equipotent compared to treatment with glibenclamide, thus could be incorporated in the management of diabetes.