Open Access Minireview Article

A Mini Review on the Phytochemistry, Toxicology and Antiviral Activity of Some Medically Interesting Zingiberaceae Species

Clement M. Mbadiko, Clement L. Inkoto, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Jason T. Kilembe, Aristote Matondo, Domaine T. Mwanangombo, Etienne M. Ngoyi, Gedeon N. Bongo, Clarisse M. Falanga, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Pius T. Mpiana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 44-56
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i430150

Background: Plants of the Zingiberaceae family namely Curcuma longa, Aframomum melegueta and Zingiber officinale are known for their many biological activities such as the antiviral activity.

Aim: To provide an updated knowledge on the phytochemistry, toxicology and antiviral activity of some medically interesting Zingiberaceae species.

Study Design: Multidisciplinary advanced bibliographic surveys and dissemination of the resulted knowledge.

Results: The literature review shows that these edible plants have antiviral properties on different types of viruses ( Rhinovirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2, Human immunodeficiency viruse, Enterovirus 71, Ebola Virus, Human cytomegalovirus,  Chikungunya virus,   Epstein-Barr Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Respiratory syncytial virus, Fish viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Influenza A virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Coronavirus SARS-CoV-1, etc.).  In addition, the literature indicated that these plants are a significant source of nutrients, which can boost the immune system and are safe according to the existing toxicological data.

Conclusion: The present mini-review can therefore help to inform future scientific research towards the development of antiCovid-19 herbal drugs of relevance as well as nutraceuticals from these three plants species for the improvement of human health and wellbeing using reverse pharmacology approach. Molecular docking of some naturally occurring isolate compounds against SARS-CoV-2 proteases is in progress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Allium sativum (Garlic) Ethanol Extract on Renal Parenchyma of Gentamicin-induced Nephropathic Rats

Dayo Rotimi Omotoso, Joy Motunrayo Olajumoke

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i430146

To assess ameliorative effects of Ascorbic acid (AA) and Allium sativum ethanol extract (ASEE) on renal parenchyma of gentamicin-induced nephropathic rats.

Thirty Wistar rats (weighing between 180-205 g) were randomly divided into five groups (A-E).  These include Group A administered with 0.9% Normal Saline (0.5 ml/kg body weight (b.w.)), Group B administered with gentamicin (GM, 200 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally (i.p.), Group C administered with GM (200 mg/kg b.w.) i.p. and AA (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally, Group D administered with GM (200 mg/kg b.w.) i.p. and ASEE (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally and Group E administered with GM (200 mg/kg b.w.) i.p. and AA (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally and ASEE (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally. All administrations were done once daily for a period of ten (10) days. The body weight of study animals was recorded at the beginning and end of study period. After the study period, renal tissue of study animals was harvested, weighed, processed, stained using H & E technique. Stained sections were examined under microscope for histopathological changes within the renal parenchyma and were scored using image-J software.

The results of this study showed that exposure to GM results into significant (P < 0.05) reduction in body and renal tissue weight. However, therapeutic exposure to AA and ASEE either as individual or combined treatment regimen culminated into relatively null body and renal tissue weight loss among treatment groups C-E. In addition, exposure to GM precipitates prominent histopathological changes within renal parenchyma of study animals.  As observed with body and renal tissue weight changes, treatment with AA and ASEE also comparatively ameliorate GM-induced nephropathy within renal parenchyma of study animals in treatment groups.

The findings of this study therefore showed that AA and ASEE exhibit ameliorative effect on the renal parenchyma of gentamicin-induced nephropathic rats either as distinct or combined treatment regimen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Favoring Non-compliance of Treatment to People Living with HIV/AIDS in General Reference Hospital of Gbadolite, Nord Ubangi, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Kohowe Pagerezo Seraphin, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Kumbali Ngambika Guy, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 9-24
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i430147

Background: ART is one of the important pillars of the fight against AIDS. It restores immunity and reduces the risk of death. Its success lies in its strict compliance while its non-compliance exposes to the risk of resistance and therapeutic failure. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with the non-compliance to ART of PLWHA monitored at the General Reference Hospital of Gbadolite.

Methodology: It was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted between December 2017 and January 2018. The compliance was measured from patient reports and by counting the number of tablets remaining from the current month of the survey. Any PLWHA who failed to take their medication at most 2 times during the month preceding the survey or whose number of remaining tablets was greater than the expected number based on the month's consumption was considered non-compliant. In total, 208 participants were selected based on the established selection criteria and several factors which led to the non-compliance of the treatment.

Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the associations between factors and the non-compliance. All tests were performed at the threshold of ɑ=0.05.

Results: In fact, 280 PLWHA had participated in the survey. The mean age was 38.7± 7.2 years while the prevalence was 51.1%. Following gender, female accounted as non-compliant (65.7%) than male The main reasons for the non-compliance to treatment were as follows: the order of frequency, medication breakdown, lack of food, forgetting, side effects, travel and fasting. Factors associated with the non-compliance were loneliness in marital status (p=0.000; OR=18.6, CI (8.926 - 38.574)), revival church religion (p=0.002; OR=9.2; CI (2.245 - 37.449)), low level of knowledge of ART principles (p=0.005; OR=1.4; CI (1.169 - 2.735)) and lack of knowledge of ART duration (p=0.021; OR=1.7 and CI (1.020 - 2.829)).

Conclusion: The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with the non-compliance of ART. The factors found in this work were those that had been found at different levels of association by many authors in previous work, namely marital status, religion, low level of knowledge about ART and lack of knowledge of duration of ART.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Fingerprinting of Nauclea latifolia, an Antidiabetic Plant, Using GC-MS

Bob I. A. Mgbeje, Caroline Abu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i430148

Aim: Earlier studies have established the antidiabetic activity of Nauclea latifolia. The aim of this study was to obtain chemical fingerprints of the ethanolic extracts of Nauclea latifolia leaf using Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to assure proper identification of the plant and to evaluate its phytochemical composition using GC-MS. It was also aimed at unravelling the phytochemical constituents responsible for its antidiabetic activities.

Methodology: The phytochemicals in the plant leaves were extracted by cold maceration in ethanol and subjected to GC-MS analysis.

Results: Chromatograms showed 51 peaks of identified phytochemical compounds. The GC-MS analysis also revealed sixteen (16) active antidiabetic phytochemicals namely: Pentanoic acid 4-oxo- ethyl ester, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, Triethyl citrate, Quinic acid, 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, Phytol, Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, Octadecanoic acid, Hexadecanoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, Vitamin E, Campesterol, Stigmasterol, Gamma-sitosterol.

Conclusion: The GC-MS profile provides a suitable chemical fingerprint to assure proper identification of the Nauclea latifolia plant. Sixteen (16) active phytochemicals of the plant leaf are known to have antidiabetic activities; these could be used as a basis for standardization of the plant preparations for diabetes therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Antioxidant Potential of Hypoestes rosea Leafin Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Albino Rats

P. E. Africa, D. G. Tamuno Emine, E. O. Nwachuku, E. S. Bartimaeus

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v9i430149

Aims: The present paper was to investigate possible antioxidant actions of Hypoestes rosea leaf extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

Study Design:  This study is an interventional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the animal house unit of the Department of Anatomy and physiology, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. between February, 2019 and September, 2019.

Methodology: A total of hundred and sixteen (116) albino rats were assigned by weight into Eighteen (18) groups. The duration of the study was fifteen (15) days for acute and thirty (30) days sub-chronic. The study groups comprised of two (2) treatment phases each (prophylactic and therapeutic) with nine (9) experimental groups in each of the study groups. Ten (10) rats each were assigned to the two (2) positive control groups and six (6) rats each were assigned to the other groups. These groups of rats with an average body weight of 201±.65.20 to 232 ± 16.23 g were treated as follows: Healthy rats received de-ionized water (Negative Control); diabetic rats administered with de-ionized water (Positive Control); healthy rats received aqueous extract orally (EC 100 mg/kg body weight) and diabetic rats administered with aqueous extract orally, daily for fifteen (15) days and thirty (30) days (AEHR 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight; Diabetic Treated group). Animals were fasted for 16 hrs, weighed and painlessly sacrificed and blood was collected through the jugular vein on day sixteen (16) and thirty-one (31) after the experimental phases. Blood sample was collected for the determination of SOD and TAC through colorimetric method.

Results: Results showed that the plasma antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity) activities were increased in the diabetic treated group compared to the diabetic control groups.

Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that AEHR can offer protection against diabetic-induced oxidative stress.