Open Access Original Research Article

Mangifera indica (Mango) Bark Therapy Potentiates Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Opeyemi Jeremiah Olateju

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i130152

Objective: One of the debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus is chronic foot ulcer. Mangifera indica (Mango) is a naturally occurring and widely cultivated plant with many health benefits attributable to its parts. The wound healing potential of its bark in adult diabetic rats was investigated.

Methods: The excised wounds of diabetic adult female wistar rats in groups of six were dressed with mango bark powder (MPD), mango bark ethanolic extract (MED), sofratulle (SD) and normal saline (ND) daily till healed. The corresponding control groups were MPC, MEC, SC and NC respectively. Every three days, the mean wound contraction rates were calculated from the measured wound areas. Granulation tissue was biopsied from an animal per group on day 3, 6 and 9 for histopathological evaluation and after healing, the scars of the remaining animals were biopsied for histology.

Results: The M. indica bark powder contained greater quantity of coumarins than the ethanolic extract; with terpenoids and steroids detected only in the powder. The MPD group had the highest mean wound contraction rates for the specified period. The mean wound contraction rates for the MPC group were significantly higher than those of the MED. The granulation tissues of the MPD and MPC groups had similar microscopic features to those of MEC, MED, SC, SD, NC and ND. Microscopy of the wound scars showed stratified squamous epithelia with abundant collagen fibres and blood vessels with dermal appendages seen in some of the groups.

Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that the M. indica bark.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anxiolytic Mechanism(S) and Corticosterone-Attenuating Effect of Hydroalcoholic Leaf Extract of Tapinanthus globiferus Mistletoe Growing on Azadirachta indica Tree

A. M. Umarudeen, M. G. Magaji

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i130153

Similar pharmacodynamic mechanism(s) often underlie drug actions and toxicities of anxiolytic agents and medicinal extracts. Extracts of Tapinanthus globiferus and related plant species have been reported with anxiolytic activities. But mechanistic evaluations on these plant extracts are few. This study investigated the anxiolytic mechanism(s), including the corticosterone-attenuating effect, of hydroalcoholic Tapinanthus globiferus (HATG) leaf extract harvested from Azadirachta indica host tree in the mouse elevated zero-maze and restraint-induced acute stress paradigms using per cent open segment time (%OST) and brain/plasma corticosterone levels as endpoints, respectively. The results show that anxiolytic activity (%OST) of 150 mg/kg HATG leaf extract was reversed by pretreatment with 5 mg/kg caffeine (HATG alone, 10.90±1.73;HATG+Caffeine, 8.66±1.74), 2 mg/kg methysergide (MTD) (HATG alone, 98.70±14.98; HATG+MTD, 74.20±10.82) and 5 mg yohimbine (HATG alone, 120.10±10.72; HATG+Yohimine, 78.44±13.92) but not by 0.5 m/kg atropine (HATG alone, 104.60±25.31; HATG+Atropine, 105.40±11.85), 0.5 mg/kg flumazenil (HATG alone,80.27±9.69; HATG+Flumazenil, 80.75±10.19), 2 mg/kg cyproheptadine (HATG alone, 88.67±16.44; HATG+Cyproheptadine, 92.11±12.58), 0.2 mg/kg haloperidol (HATG alone, 74.11±17.33; HATG+Haloperidol, 94.00±32.54) and 5 mg/kg naloxone (HATG alone, 94.30±10.84; HATG+Naloxone, 95.30±6.86). The results also indicate HATG leaf extract (at 50, 150, 500 and 1500 mg/kg) caused largely dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05) attenuations in brain/plasma corticosterone levels (5.64±0.66/3.91±0.44,3.78±0.39/3.39±0.38, 4.26±0.34/3.22±0.18 and 2.74±0.51/2.74±0.22), respectively, in extract- compared to distilled water- (5.93±0.60/4.56±0.37) and diazepam-treated (2.34±0.19/2.44±0.29) mice subjected to restraint-induced acute stress. These findings suggest anxiolytic mechanism(s) of the extract may involve its interactions with the adenosine, non-5HT2 serotonin, alpha (α)2 receptors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study may constitute the first mechanistic and corticosterone modulation report on the extracts of this parasitic medicinal plant and may benefit from confirmatory radio-labelled binding assays in subsequent studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Five Plants as Possible Antileishmaniasis Control Agent

Mukhwana Dennis Wafula

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i130154

Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem globally and manifests in three clinical forms including visceral cutaneous and mucocutaneous. Visceral leishmaniasis is fatal if left untreated for a period of 2 years, while cutaneous leishmaniasis cause crusted papules or ulcers on exposed skin. Plant families containing active compounds against other protozoan diseases may be suitable against leishmania parasites. This study report the compounds extracted from five plants (Olea europaea, Kigelia Africana, Terminalia mollis, Croton macrostachyus and Bridella micrantha extracts). The plants were collected from Baringo County in Kenya and authenticated at the National Museums of Kenya (Department of Botany). The plant samples were dried, pulverized into fine powders and extracted using methanol at the Center for Traditional Medicine and Drugs Research, KEMRI. The plant extracts contained varying amounts of phytochemical compounds such as tannins, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinone, cardiac glycoside, polyphenols, cumarins, anthocyanins, trepenoids, glycosides and triterpenoids. The presence of tannins, flavanoids, alkaloids and saponins with known biological activities offer opportunity to test these compounds against leishmania parasites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neurohistological Study of the Interactive Influence of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Sida acuta and Rauvolfia vomitoria on the Hippocampus of Albino Rats

Kingsley A. Okon, Enobong I. Bassey, Iboro E. Edet, Grace U. Samuel

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i130155

Aim: To provide information on the interactive influence of Sida acuta and Rauvolfia vomitoria on the hippocampus of albino rats using neurohistological parameter.

Methods: Thirty-five (35) female adult albino rats were used for the experiment. They were randomly divided into seven groups of five animals in each group. Group 1: The control group was given feed and water ad libitum for 28 days. Groups 2-7 served as the experimental groups. Group 2: Received 200 mg/kg body weight of Sida acuta leaf extract for 14 days. Group 3: Received 212.5 mg/kg body weight of Rauvolfia vomitoria leaf extract for 14 days. Group 4: Received 200 mg/kg body weight of Sida acuta and 212.5 mg/kg body weight of Rauvolfia vomitoria leaf extract for 14 days. Group 5: Received 200 mg/kg body weight of Sida acuta leaf extract for 14 days, then              212.5 mg/kg body weight of Rauvolfia vomitoria for the remaining 14 days. Group 6: Received             400 mg/kg body weight of Sida acuta leaf extract for 14 days, then 425 mg/kg body weight of Rauvolfia vomitoria for the remaining 14 days. Group 7: Received 600 mg/kg body weight of Sida acuta leaf extract for 14 days, then 850 mg/kg body weight of Rauvolfia vomitoria for the remaining 14 days.

Results: Sida acuta at the tested dose of 200 mg/kg body weight induced degeneration of pyramidal cells when compared to the control, Rauvolfia vomitoria at the tested dose of 212.5 kg/mg body weight exhibited neuroprotective effect, co-administration of both Sida acuta at 200 mg/kg body weight and Rauvolfia vomitoria at 212.5 mg/kg body weight and administration of Rauvolfia vomitoria after Sida acuta at increasing doses significantly reverse these changes to near normal when compared to the group that received 200 mg/kg body weight of Sida acuta for 14 days.

Conclusion: Rauvolfia vomitoria had the potential of ameliorating the neurodegenerative effect caused by the Sida acuta leaf extract on the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of a Slow-stroke Back Massage Combination and Frangipani Essential Oils against the Comfort of Menopause Sexual Relationship

Zaenal Amirudin, Afiyah Sri Harnany, Indar Widowati

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 37-44
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i130156

This study aims to analyze the effect of a combination of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) and frangipani essential oils on the comfort of menopause women during sexual intercourse. The study with a quasi-equivalent non-control control group pre-test and post-test design. A sample of 42 married couples was recruited by purposive sampling. Samples were divided into intervention groups (SSBM with Frangipani essential oil) and SSBM control groups only, each group consisting of 21 pairs of respondents. Respondents were asked to fill in the F-scale sexual self efficacy questionnaire before and after sexual intercourse, repeated three times. The data collected was analyzed descriptively, presented in the form of mean, median and percentage. Bivariate analysis using ANOVA test. The analysis results sig value = 0.00 <0.05, meaning that there is a  difference between before the pre test with the first, second and post test third. In the Probability obtained Sig = 0.00 <0.05, it means that there are differences in comfort between the control groups in the pre test with the first, second and third post test. In the interaction with the Sig  value = 0.00 <0.05, it means that there is an interaction of comfort differences between the intervention group and the control group. The combination of frangipani essential oil with SSBM can be used by families as an aromatherapy massage to improve the sexual relations of menopausal women.