Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Thymus schimperi and Moringa stenopetala Leaf Extracts on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Status in Pre-eclampsia Rat Models

Kumlachew Mergiaw, Yoseph A. Mengesha, Tesfaye Tolessa, Eyasu Makonnen, Solomon Genet, Abiy Abebe, Kidist Gebreyesus, Ashenif Tadele, Asfaw Debella, Demeke Ashencho

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i230157

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are common pregnancy complications, with a cumulative incidence of 7%. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is the most common clinical type of HDP and one of the five top leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. There is imbalance between lipid peroxides and antioxidant system in PE. Established PE is associated with increased concentrations of oxidative stress markers including lipid peroxidation products, and a reduction in antioxidant concentrations.

Methods: A case control experimental method was employed on Wistar rats with induced pre-eclampsia using nitric oxide-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Lipid peroxide content was estimated according to the method of Ohkawa et al. 1979. Total antioxidant capacity was assayed using colorimetric azinobis 2, 2′3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical cathion decolorization assay.

Results: Lipid peroxides of untreated PE rat models were significantly (p<0.01) higher (0.57±0.08 nmol of malondyaldehide (MDA) per gram tissue weight) compared to normal pregnant controls (0.11±0.03 nmol). PE rat models that received aqueous leaf extracts of Thymus schimperi (ALETS) had (0.09±0.01, 0.07±0.002 and 0.02±0.002 nmol) (p<0.05) while, those PE rat models that received aqueous leaf extracts of Moringa stenopetala (ALEMS) had (0.36±0.08, 0.20±0.003 and 0.13±0.02 nmol) (p<0.05) with daily doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively. On the other hand, untreated PE rat models had significantly (p<0.01) lower levels of serum total anti-oxidants (24.5±0.9 μg/ml of ascorbic acid equivalent) compared to normal pregnant controls (28.1±0.4 μg/ml). ALETS or ALEMS treated PE rat models had significantly (p<0.01) higher levels of serum total anti-oxidants in a dose dependent manner compared to untreated PE controls; (27.6±0.3, 29.5±0.3, 31.2±0.4 μg/ml and 29.2±0.3, 29.7±0.3, 30.6±0.4 μg/ml) with daily doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively. ALETS treated PE rat models had significantly (p<0.05) reduced total lipid peroxides compared to ALEMS treated counterparts.

Conclusion: ALETS and ALEMS might have significant therapeutic effects against PE syndrome through reducing lipid peroxides and increasing total anti-oxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant Potentials of Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica in Alcohol- Induced Hepatotoxic Albino Rats

N. C. Chuks-Oguine, E. S. Bartimaeus, E. O. Nwachuku

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i230158

Aims: This study evaluated the antioxidant potentials of Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica on Alcohol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino rats.

Study Design: The study is an experimental case-controlled study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methodology: Fifty-five (55) healthy adult male albino rats with an average weight of about 150-200 g were used for the study. They were divided into 11 groups of 5 Rats each and subjected to different treatments of the aforementioned herbs. All the animals received humane treatments according to the criteria outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by the National Institute of Health. Fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica were bought from the Mile 3 market in Port-Harcourt. The herbs were separately extracted using maceration method. Absolute ethanol at a volume of 1 ml/kg (0.79 g/kg) was used to induce hepatotoxicity in rats. At the end of the treatment period, rats in all the groups were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected by jugular puncture. Total antioxidant capacity was analyzed using colorimetric method, whilst, malondialdehyde levels were determined using ELISA method. SPSS version 22.0 was used to analyse data generated and p values less than 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: Results show that intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml/kg ethanol significantly raised plasma MDA levels and significantly decreased TAOC in induced rats. Treatment with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg b.wt. of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica however effectively reduced ethanol induced raised activity of the MDA levels and increased the activity of TAOC in the rats, but the effects were not dose dependent and a combination of both herbs did not produce better therapeutic effect.

Conclusion: Based on our findings, we conclude that Ocimum gratissimum and Xylopia aethiopica used separately could reduce oxidative stress in alcohol induced hepatotoxic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corchorus olitorius Extract Attenuate Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Injury via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Arrhythmia and Pro-Apoptotic Protein Bax Expression

Babatunde Adebola Alabi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ademola Oyagbemi, Ileri-Oluwa Busayo Emmanuel, Adeolu Adedapo, Oluwole Fagbemi, Olugbenga Iwalewa

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 17-28
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i230159

Background and Aim: Corchorus olitorius (CO) leaf was reported to possess abundant antioxidants and used in the traditional treatment of heart disease. Previous studies revealed the protective roles of antioxidants against oxidative stress and inflammation, which are important underlying pathogenesis of myocardial injury that leads to infarction and heart failure. Therefore, CO leaf was chosen to evaluate its cardio-protective effects against ischemic-induced myocardial injury.

Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats (Wistar strains) were divided into five groups (n = 6): normal control group, myocardial injury control group, pretreatment groups (250 and 500 mg/kg), positive control group (10 mg/kg enalapril). After pre-treatment of rats with ethanol leaf extract of CO for 19 days, Isoprenaline (100 mg/kg) administration induced acute myocardial injury and parameters like blood pressure, electrocardiogram, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants were assessed and tissue subjected to histological evaluations.

Results: Isoproterenol given through subcutaneous significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood pressure and electrocardiography showed reduced p-interval and prolongation of QRS-interval in rats.               The extract significantly increased the blood pressure and p-interval, QRS-interval were significantly reduced. The significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde, serum         myeloperoxidase, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and expression of Bax in the infarction control rats was decreased (p<0.05) in pre-treatment rats. Pre-treatment also increased glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutathione and non-protein thiol level significantly. In contrast to cardio-injury control, histology showed mild level of inflammation and fatty infiltration in pre-treated rats.

Conclusion: This study showed the protective role of ethanol extract of CO against myocardial injury through anti-apoptotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arrhythmic effect. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Anacardium occidentale and Psidium guajava Methanolic Leaf Extracts

Mutiat Adetayo Omotayo, Mary Oluwatoyin Avungbeto, Oluwole Olusoji Eleyowo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i230160

Aim: This study evaluates the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Anacardium occidentale and Psidium guajava methanolic leaf extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Biochemistry and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Pure and Applied Science, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos- Nigeria for the period of three months between August and October 2015.

Methodology: Lycophene and β-carotene was assessed using the method of Nagata and Yamashita while total phenolic and total flavonoid content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar well diffusion technique and mode of action was evaluated by studying the leakage of UV260 and UV280 absorbing materials spectrophotometrically.

Results: A. occidentale and P. guajava methanolic leaf extracts evaluated in this study possessed significant amount of antioxidant compounds lycophene, β-carotene, total phenol and flavonoids. The extracts exhibited antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radicals in a dose dependent pattern with IC50 of 47.45, 43.49, 41.46 and 27.21 μg/mL for A. occidentale, P. guajava, vitamin C and Gallic acid respectively. Also, the plant extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, P. auraginosa and C. albicans and disrupted microbial membrane evident in the increase in absorbance values of UV260 and UV280 absorbing materials with time.

Conclusion: A. occidentale and P. guajava methanolic leaf extracts possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and serve as potential source of drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Attitudes and Beliefs of Physicians and Pharmacists towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine Based on CAMBI and another Instrument

Ede Tyrell, Karishma Jeeboo, Jewel Edmonson- Carter, Troy Thomas, Rajini Kurup

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i230162

Aims: To investigate the attitudes and beliefs of physicians and pharmacists towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) using two instruments: the Complementary and Alternative Belief Inventory (CAMBI) and the Attitudes to Alternative Medicine.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study of registered physicians and pharmacists attending their conferences or Continuing Pharmacy Education (CPE) sessions in Guyana.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacists attending their first CPE for 2015 and physicians at their annual Medical Conference participated.

Methodology: A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used and 274 persons (140 physicians and 134 pharmacists) participated. One section of the questionnaire, utilised the CAMBI to measure three constructs: beliefs in holistic health, natural treatments, and participation in treatment. The other section focused on attitudes to Alternative Medicine. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and structural equations modelling were employed in the analysis of the data.

Results: For the CAMBI, a final model was obtained following the removal of several items that lacked validity and statistical significance. Most of the participants (56%) were 20-30 years old and most (52%) of them had 5 years or less professional experience. Overall, the participants were not closed to the use of CAM but there was some scepticism. Physicians believed more strongly in holistic health than pharmacists, but the latter group showed a more positive attitude to involvement in the CAM environment. Attitudes were not affected by age nor area of practice but were influenced by profession, gender, ethnicity, years of professional service and whether or not they attended the local university.

Conclusion: The CAMBI performed poorly and would have to be revised to suit the local context in future studies. Overall, most participants had some reservations about CAM. Emphasis on holistic health and CAM should be prioritised in any training at the undergraduate level or any continuing education sessions.